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顾绍骅 发表于  2017-03-17 11:53:37 34520字 ( 0/67)

(原创首发)双语版·中国书画作品欣赏之我见——中国画(今译)五

五、   中国画的用光

一位大画家曾说过,一位美术家的重要性,是由他引入美术语言中创新符号数量的多寡决定的。中国古典绘画中的光,大都是表现明暗分布的。现代中国画中的光,不仅表现明暗分布,而且成为刻画形象、突出主题、表现画家情感的新艺术语言。现代中国画家的这种创造,对中国画的革新与发展功不可没。对此我们必须给予足够的重视。


Five, the use of Chinese painting

A great painter once said that the importance of an artist is determined by the number of creative symbols in the art language. Most of the light in Chinese classical painting is the distribution of light and shade. The light of modern Chinese painting not only shows the distribution of light and shade, but also becomes a new artistic language to describe the image, highlight the theme, and express the painter's emotion. The creation of modern Chinese painters, the reform and development of Chinese painting. We must pay enough attention to this.


王履《华山图》  


Wang Lv's "Huashan picture"


明初画家王履以自然为师,所作《华山图》册页四十幅,  

 
 皆由写生观察得来,光感甚强,故山石明亮坚实,气势雄伟;而冷谦的《白岳图》用笔下: 
 
 
  用焦墨,干笔擦出的山石。明暗分明,光感显著,尢其画幅中部树林的顶稍留出光亮部位,与山石白云亮部协调统一,深得自然光影之妙  浙派画家继承南宋水墨苍劲的画法,全部以斧头劈开木材时显现的纹理效果及拖泥带水阴影画法的用笔勾画,多近块的造型,放山头每出现明显的光感。试看张平山的《山雨欲来图》上部的山峰, 
 竟有类似逆光的感觉,更属奇特。吴派画家唐寅十分注重画的明度,如《春山伴侣》中的山石,明部过渡自然、暗部对比强烈、调子准确,显得整幅画面明媚动人,非对光的明度有深入观察不能表现至此。 
 清代力倡革新的石涛,所作山水极有创意,并且“搜尽奇峰打草稿”,努力表现对自然景物的真切感受、其画山石每留出空白面,而在山顶和山脚用浓墨衬托,显得光洁明净,水墨淋漓,画面中山水更得光影微妙之趣。他的《搜尽奇峰图卷》   和《双清阁图卷》中, 
 
 对树林的光影表现更是奇妙之至、在中国画“用光”史上值得大笔一书的是金陵八家之首的龚贤—其作品墨韵深厚、层次丰富,在乌黑亮泽中,逼迫出强烈的光感。 
 

In the early Ming Dynasty painter Wang Lv nature as a teacher, as the "Huashan picture" picture album, all by the sketch observation, the light is very strong, so the rocks bright solid, magnificent; and Leng qian's "White mountain picture" under the pen Baiyue: Thick dry ink, the dry brush wipe out the rocks. Brightness is clear, light is significant, especially in the middle of the wood frame top slightly left light parts, and rocks, white clouds of harmony, deep natural light and wonderful Zhejiang painter Chinese Ink in Southern Song Dynasty inherited the vigorous brushwork, texture and make a pen sketch all appear in shadow drawing an axe when wood, nearly block the other, on the hill every apparent light. Look at Zhang Pingshan's "Mountain Rain Coming soon picture" the upper part of the mountain, there is a similar backlight feel more strange. Wu painter Tang Yin attaches great importance to painting the lightness, such as "Spring mountain partner" in the rocks, Ming transition nature, strong contrast, dark tone of the picture is accurate, beautiful and moving, not to light brightness in-depth observation not so far. The Qing Dynasty advocated innovation Shi Tao, the landscape is very creative, and "do search Qifeng scratch", trying to show real feelings, on the nature of the painted rocks each set aside a blank surface, and the edges with foil in the top and bottom, is clean and bright and clean, ink dripping, the picture is more delicate landscape lighting fun. His "Do search Qifeng Picture scroll" and "Shuangqing Pavilion Picture scroll", the lighting performance of the woods is wonderful, in China to draw " The lighting performance of the woods is wonderful, in China to draw "is a book with large light" in the history of the Eight Masters of Nanjing first Chinese painting the works of Gong Xian - ink rhyme deep, rich in glossy black, forcing a strong light.


对林木及点景物的渲染也常显出光的神秘,对后人颇多启迪;需要指出的是,晚清随西方教会进来的所谓传教土画家,如郎世宁、艾启蒙等,他们基本上是用中国画的工具和题材形式画西洋画,画面全按西洋透视明暗关系刻刨,所作无论花鸟动物或人物风景,都是典型的“素描加勾线”式的画法,因其缺少笔墨气韵和情趣,缺乏中国画的传统气质,故亦与本文试图建立之“用光”系统无涉。综上所述,传统中国绘画中,历代都不乏对光有所观察和表现的画家或作品,尽管这些表现大都是无意识的,而程度上与我们现代人对光的观察和理解差别甚大,但也可证明“光”作为绘画上二不可或缺的一种因素,在我国千百年来的绘画实践中确已普遍地存在着,并对我国绘画的发展进步有着不容忽视的作用。

 
 
 

The rendering of trees and point of view often shows the mystery of light,a lot of inspiration for future generations; that is, in the late Qing Dynasty with the Western church in the so-called missionary painters, such as Lang Shining, Ai Qimeng, etc., they are basically using Chinese painting tools and theme painting of Western painting, the whole picture by Western painting Perspective Shading the relationship characterization, whether birds animal or human landscape, is a typical "Sketch plus Hook line" of the painting, because of its lack of The spirit of pen and ink and temperament and interest, Traditional temperament China lack of painting, and hence this paper tries to establish the "light" system for free. To sum up, the traditional China painting, there are some light on the observation and performance of artists or works, although the performance is mostly unconscious, and the extent of our modern light on observation and understanding of the difference is very large, but also proved that the "light" as a painting on the two essential factors. In the practice of painting in China for thousands of years has been in widespread existence, development and progress of China's painting has a role can not be ignored.


中国画以线条为主要造型手段,特别是自宋元以来,文入画家一直“以水墨为上”{以中国画传统的毛笔、墨汁(包含水的运用)为最佳选择”,},把光色放在次要位置,而且光与色又处于分离状态,所以有人误认为:“中国画却是线的韵律。光不要了,影也不要了。”其实,画面上如果没有光,便一片漆黑,那叫什么画呢?所 以宋代的韩拙说:“笔以立其形质,墨以分其阴阳。{用毛笔建立其形壮、质地(中国画用线条来造型),用墨色来分出背光面与受光面。}”清代沈宗骞进一步指 出:“画之色,非丹铅青绛之谓,乃在浓淡明晦之间。”“阴阳”、“明晦”中的“阳”、“明”指的就是光,{中国画的颜色,不是红、白、蓝、绿、绛这样的说 法,而是在浓、淡、明、暗之间。“阴阳”(中国道家文化的阴阳学说:“天是阳、地是阴,男人是阳、女人是阴,受光面是阳、背光面是阴)}只是中国画家对光 色的认识是哲学的、经验的罢了。因此,中国画家没有原生影、派生影、全明暗、全色彩等概念,而是把画面上的光分成正面光、固定光、平面光等。现代中国画家 受到现代哲学、现代科学与现代人审美要求的影响,其画面上对于光的处理发生了巨大的变化,在保留部分中国人审美习惯的同时,又大胆突破正面光、固定光、平 面光的束缚,创造了新的光色语言。用强光、顶光、开光取代正面光。所谓正面光,就是光线从正面平射到物象上。正面是阳,是受光面;背面是阴,是背光面。正面光的表现源于道家思想。

 

 

China painting lines as the main means of modeling, especially since the song yuan, the painter has been into "ink on the" to Chinese {traditional brush and ink painting (using a water) is the best choice, the color on the}, secondary position, and light and color in the separation state. So some people mistakenly think: "it is Chinese line painting rhythm. No light, no shadow." In fact, if there is no light on the screen, it is a dark, what is called painting? So song Han Han said: The brush is to build its shape, Ink used distinguish between thick and light, yin and Yang the to. {brush to establish its shape and texture (China painting lines, with the other) to separate the ink back surface and smooth. } "Shen Zongqian of the Qing Dynasty further pointed out:" the color paintings, non Red, white, blue, dull-red that is in Thick, light, and bright dark." "Yin and Yang", "bright and dark" in the "Yang" and "Ming" refers to the light, {Chinese painting color, not red, white, blue, green, purple this argument, but in Thick, light, and bright dark. "Yin and Yang" (Chinese Taoist Culture: Yin and Yang, the theory of yin and Yang of the two opposing principles in nature, the former feminine and negative the latter masculine and positive, "the sky is Yang, Yin, Yang, Yin man is a woman is, the light is Yang, the back surface is Yin} only) China painter understanding of color is the philosophy and experience. Therefore, the Chinese painters do not have the concept of the original shadow, the derivative film, the full shade, the full color, but the picture is divided into positive light, fixed light, flat light, etc.. The modern China painter by modern philosophy, modern science and modern aesthetic requirements, the picture for light treatment has undergone tremendous changes, in the retention of some Chinese aesthetic habits at the same time, bold breakthrough, positive light fixed light, planar light, created a new color language. With the light, top light, light instead of positive light. The so-called positive light, is light images from the front Shedao on. Yang is positive, is smooth; the back is cloudy, is backlit face. The performance of positive light originates from taoism.

 

《老子·四十二章》中说:“道生一,一生二,二生三,三生万物,万物负阴而抱阳,冲气以为和。(万物都是矛盾双方对立统一而存在,阴阳环抱才中气调和;冲起来,也就是气机要运动起来。)”“负阴抱阳”(即背面阴正面阳)是中国画光分布的一般法则。现代中国画家受现代光学、色彩学的影响,认识到以阳光为主的光源是多向的,光可以从正面来,也可以从上面、侧面、背面来,物象的受光面与画家对受光面的处理,也是多种多样的。在现代中国画中,有很多人使用强光。强烈的光线集中在画面的中部而不一定是正面。它的作用不仅在强调画面光的分布,也在强调某种意义,因而成为一种新的造型语言。以全景式构图,多空间的重迭组合去表现自然的“无限”。画面上的近景、远景均为弱光与暗部。画中的云水由强光表示。画面比较抽象,有巨然《秋山问道图》的意蕴,体现出入居于云水之间对人生、宇宙作形而上的思考与超越。这是美学上的思考与哲学上的思考的互融。此强光虽仍然是哲学的、经验的,但已完全不是道家的“道”,而是融合了相对论、现代哲学与科学的“道”。

 
 

"Lao Tzu - Chapter forty-two" said: "Taoist school Give birth to a theory,One begets TwoTwo begets Threeall the negative Yin and Yang, Qi and thought."(everything is between the two sides of the unity of opposites exists only in Yin and Yang surrounded by harmony; washed up, gas is confidential in motion.)" "Negative yin-yang hold" (that is, the back Yam-positiv) is a general rule of light distribution in Chinese painting. The modern Chinese painter influenced by modern optics, color, light to realize the sun is more oriented to the light, can be positive, but also from above, side, back to the light, and the images of the artists on the smooth processing, is various. In modern Chinese painting, a lot of people use strong light. Strong light is concentrated in the middle of the screen, not necessarily positive. Its role not only emphasizes the distribution of the screen light, but also emphasizes a certain meaning, thus becoming a new modeling language. A panoramic image, overlapping more space to the portfolio performance of the natural unlimited". On the screen, close-up vision of both light and dark. The water from the glare said. Comparison of abstract images, The five generation painter Ju ran "Akiyama asked picture" implication, of living in cloud water access between life and the universe for the metaphysical thinking and transcendence. This is the integration of aesthetic thinking and philosophical thinking. Although the strong light is still philosophical and experience, but it is not the Tao of Taoism, but the fusion of the theory of relativity, modern philosophy and science".

用跳动光、飘浮光取代固定光。古典画家按“负阴抱阳”的观念处理光,不考虑不同光源的光色和不同环境的光色对所画物象的影响,也不重视空气和画家视点与物象的距离对物象的影响,在表现正面光的同时,采用固定的垂直光分布。固定光使物象明暗分明、浮雕感强,但光的多样性、动态性与主观性却被隐没了。

Replacing fixed light with beating light and floating light. According to the concept of "classical painter Negative yin-yang hold light", without considering the different light source color and the color of different environment by painting images of the impact, do not pay attention to the effect of air and the images of the painter viewpoint and distance on the object, in the light of the positive performance at the same time, fixed the vertical distribution of light. Fixed light makes clear, strong sense of relief images of light and dark, but Light Diversity, Dynamic property And subjectivity Has been hidden.

现代中国画家受到现代审美动力学和欧洲印象派绘画的影响,开始打破固定光的束缚。程十发的《喂羊》、  

 杨延文的《村妞》等作品中的光, 

 都是不规则的、跳跃的。毕建勋的《改革之年》的画面上部有几道闪电般的光,从顶部沿斜线射向中部。 

 这种跳动的光,使整个画面受到震动,暗示改革势头锐不可挡,似乎讲述着改革之年人们奋发向上的冲劲。这种光不是依附于物象之上的,在独立发挥自身的功能。《村妞》使我们联想到杰克逊·波洛克的某些作品,  

 但又与它不同。此画是用水墨染成的大都市朦胧夜景。朦胧的夜色中,各种灯光的闪烁、跳动,表现出大都市的喧器、繁荣和彻夜的骚动。画面上的白光、红光、黄光、蓝光以及长光、短光跳跃着,互相映照,把大都市夜生活渲染得淋漓尽致。这种对光的处理,既有民族“基因”,又有现代性,因此它必然能与世界美术接轨。画家们突破了传统固定光的观念,可能得益于现代科学的影响。固定光的基本功能在描绘物象的明暗分布上,主要是客观的。现代中国画中许多飘浮之光,则带有很大的主观性。


The modern Chinese painters were influenced by the modern aesthetic dynamics and the European impressionist painting and began to break the bondage of fixed light. Cheng Shifa's "feeding sheep", Yang Yanwen's "The village girl" and other works of light, are irregular, jumping. The upper part of the picture of Bi Jianxun's "year of reform" of the A few flashes of lightning light, Along diagonal at the top in the middle. This beat the light, the entire screen by the vibration, suggesting that the momentum of reform Ruibukedang seems to be about the year of reform, people exert upward momentum. This light is not dependent on the images above, the independent play to its own. "The village girl" reminds us of some of the works of JACKSON POLLOCK, but different from it. This painting is stained with ink metropolis hazy night. Hazy night, all kinds of lights flashing, beating, showing the metropolitan Noisy sound, prosperity and the night of the be in a tumult. On the screen of white, red, yellow and blue light and long - and short jump, shine upon each other, the Metropolis nightlife played most incisive. This kind of dispose to light, both national "gene", and modernity, so it must be able to integrate with the world art. Painters have broken through the traditional concept of fixed light, possibly due to the influence of modern science. The basic function of fixed - painted in the brightness of images, mainly objective. A lot of floating light in modern Chinese painting is subjective.


张民生的《山光》中没有固定的光。强光分散在几个部位互不联系,没有统一的光源与光亮梯度,强光笼罩在某些物象之上。  

 

 它主要不是说明物象之上真实的光分布,而是体现画家的主观意图——强调新时期山民新的生活。张海东的《红花园》,光分布更显得极不规则,随意飘浮。 

 强光既不遵守透视规则也不囿于光分布的固定要求,有的落在人物的上身,有的落在人物的胳膊或脚上,有的落在飞鸟的头部或背景上。白色的强光与偏冷的红花形成对比,突出表现红花园中奏笛的三女于优雅的神态。飘忽的强光使清晰的画面变得有些朦陇,呈现一种含蓄的诗意美。张广俊的《竹乡初雪》画面: 一轮皓月照亮一片被茂密竹林遮住,又时隐时现的在小山村上;这里船儿歇了,村庄“睡了”,雪儿在静静地下……;一切是多么的恬静。画家用“顶光”处理:被撒上朦胧月光的山村、小河与大地,竹林时隐时现,画中散落着白雪。 

 这是自然美与心灵美的和谐融合。这种美的现代感很强,又在似与不似之间表现对象,抒发了画家的情思,表现出东方艺术的韵昧。

There is no fixed "hill" in the light of Zhang Minsheng. Light scattered in several parts are not linked, there is no uniform gradient of light and bright, bright lights shrouded in some images on. It is not the main note on real images of light distribution, but the subjective intent of the painter - that the new era mountain people a new life. Zhang Haidong's "red garden", the distribution of light is very irregular, floating at random. Light does not comply with the rules of perspective is not limited to fixed light distribution requirements, and some people fall on the upper part of the body, and some people fall on the arms or legs, some fell on the head or background of the birds. White bright light and cold red flowers contrast, highlighting the red garden in the flute playing three female grace manner. Move swiftly's bright light makes a clear picture of some Meng long fuzzy, showing a subtle poetic beauty. Zhang Guangjun "Zhu Xiang First Snow screen: Haoyue lit up" a by a dense bamboo forest cover, and when the time is now hidden a small mountain village Boat have a rest;; here, the village "to sleep", Snow in the sky quietly in the underground...... How peaceful it is. Painters "top light": Meng long fuzzy Moonlight village, creek and earth, Bamboo forest now appearing, now disappearing, painted with white snow. This is beauty of nature and beauty of mind harmonious fusion. The modern sense of the beauty of this is very strong, and in the Between like and not like performance object, to express the artist's affection, showing the Oriental Art charm.

     用点光、变调光取代平面光。我国除了一部分花鸟画外,大部分山水画、工笔人物画的色彩都是平面的。平面色彩之上的光缺少层次、冷暖、明暗变化,因此是平面光。现代中国画家从我国舞台美术、民间美术和西方现代主义绘画中吸取有益的因素,采用点光、色彩变调所呈现的有层次、有变化的光,来突破传统的平面光,并使这种光成为画面灵动活泼的语言。点光,就是把强光分解成许许多多的“点”,使之散落在画面的各个部分、各个角落,使画面的动力性增强,并呈现丰富多彩的光分布。姚卫国的《希望的早晨》,整个画面是偏冷灰调子。在一片暗灰色建筑物中,到处可见白色的亮点,把一所希望小学照亮。 

 大大小小的亮点,似乎汇成了优美的旋律,奏响希望小学新一天的晨曲。闪烁的众多亮点,使画面富有动感,表现出早晨生机勃勃的景象。作者用被大大小小亮点包围的、饱和度不相同的偏灰紫小色块来构成画面,打破了传统重彩画的平面光画法,使画面显现出强烈的节奏感。这种节奏感的高潮在画面的远景——小学生举行升国旗仪式部分,红旗与众多白色亮点互相呼应,让人看到画面上不同形状光点的组合,都是为主题服务的。另外,我们在晁海的《晨曦》、 

 孙玉香的《悠悠岁月》、牛锡珠的《护林人家》等作品中,都看到了作者使用点光来取代平面光,取得了良好的表现效果。 

 突破平面光的另一个有效方法是采用色彩转调光。色彩转调通常是由某种色相所呈现的冷暖、明暗变化体现的。朱建平的《世纪森林之春》中的群山是微微发红的绿色,森林是蓝绿色。作者用同一色调描绘同一类型的物象(群山与森林)而使不同树木与山峦区别开来,依靠的是色调的冷暖、明暗变化。作者不用线条勾勒,完全突破平面光,使画面的光在同一色调的冷暖、明暗对比中显现出来,使画面既保留了装饰性也显得很美,洋溢着诗情。

With the point of light, replace the light plane. In addition to part of the flower and bird painting in China, most of the color of landscape painting and fine brushwork figure painting are flat. The light above the plane color is lack of level, temperature, light and shade, so it is a flat light. Modern China painters draw useful factors from China's stage arts, folk art and modern western painting, the light spot, presented by the color tone sandhi level and the changes in light, to break through the traditional flat light, and that this light a vivid and lively language. Point light, is to break down the strong light into a lot of "points", so that it is scattered in the various parts of the screen, each corner, so that the dynamic power of the screen, and a variety of light distribution. Yao Weiguo's "Morning of hope", the whole picture is partial cold gray tone. In a dark gray building, white highlights everywhere, a hope primary school light. The bright lights of all sizes, it seems Huicheng a beautiful melody, played the hope that the new primary school day morning song. Flashes of many bright spots, so that the screen is full of vitality, showing a vibrant scene in the morning. The author used was surrounded by large and small bright spot, not the same degree of saturation partial gray color purple to a small screen, breaking the traditional Zhongcai Hua painting the plane, the screen showed a strong sense of rhythm. The rhythm of the climax of the flag raising ceremony in the vision of the screen - students held the red flag with white highlights many echo each other, people see different shapes on the screen a combination of light, are the theme of the service. In addition, we Chaohai's "Dawn" Sun, Yuxiang's "Long years", "Forest Niu Xizhu's protection people Family And other works, the authors have seen the use of point to replace the light plane made a good performance effect. Another effective way to break the plane is to usecolor transfer. Color transfer is usually reflected from a certain huepresented by the well-being, brightness change. Zhu Jianping's "Century forest spring" in the mountains is slightly red green, the forest is blue-green. The author used the same color images depicting the same type (mountains and forests) and makes different distinguish between trees and mountains, depending on the tonal changes, changes in brightness. The authors do not have to draw lines, completely break the plane light, so that the screen light appeared in the same brightness, contrast between warm and cold colors, so that the screen is to retain the decorative looks beautiful, filled with poetry.

 

待续

To be continued


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