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顾绍骅 发表于  2018-03-14 08:59:37 40204字 ( 0/145)

图文版·中国书画作品欣赏之我见——中国画(今译)一

 
中国书画作品欣赏之我见——中国画(今译)

"Enjoy" China works of calligraphy and painting my views - China painting (translation)

                                                                                                                              


 顾绍骅著

Gu Shaohua write

 
 

对中国画审美特征的理解会敏锐我们的直觉,欣赏时再结合想象,方能领略作品的文化背景和气韵、神韵、陶冶情怀。中国的书法与绘画是在一种特殊而古老的文明环境中产生的。几千年来,它们曾走过了从发端、童稚、成熟到升华变化,从实用到艺术化的漫长路程。毫不夸张地说,书与画是华夏民族的聪慧与创造力最集中的表现之一,并在某种意义上标志着华夏文明在古典文化艺术领域的最高水准。


The understanding of the aesthetic characteristics of Chinese painting will be keen on our intuition, when combined with the imagination, to appreciate the cultural background of the work and artistic conception, Romantic charm, Cultivate feelings. Chinese calligraphy and painting are produced in a special and ancient civilization. For thousands of years, they have gone through from the beginning, childish and mature to the sublimation of change, from the practical to the art of the long journey. It is no exaggeration to say that Chinese calligraphy and painting is one of the most concentrated expression of the Chinese nation's wisdom and creativity, and marks in a sense Chinese Civilization Classical culture in the field of art the highest level.


中国乃至东方世界对宇宙自然的看法,对社会人事的态度,对美与永恒性的追求,都在中国书画里得到了显化,并通过它们而获得了千百万炎黄子孙、东方朋友乃至世界各国朋友的认同。历代那些稚拙的或者雄健的或者秀美的碑帖法书,那些神秘的或灿烂的或淡雅的绘画名品,都是我们民族的精华——书画艺术家们(包括不知名姓的民间艺匠)以审美方式与主客体世界进行心灵对语的形象记录。这种对语有时达到了哲学化的高度,——在“若坐、若行、若飞、若动”的纵横笔画之间,在“有丰致、有缥缈”的笔情墨象之中,蕴含着情思,也体现着“道”,表现着人格乃至对生命宇宙的体验。


Chinese and the eastern world views of the universe's natural, social and personnel on the attitude of beauty and the pursuit of the eternal, in Chinese painting, has been significant, and through them, and access to the millions of Chinese people, Oriental friends and friends around the world agree. All those childish or powerful or beautiful China calligraphy rubbings or copybook, the mysterious or brilliant or elegant paintings of famous, is our national essence of painting and calligraphy artists (including unknown folk artisan) in aesthetic manner and objectivity of the soul of the world to record the image of language. This kind of language sometimes reach a height of philosophy, in the "It is sitting in, like walking, like flying, beating Vertical or like" horizontal strokes, "in the ink pen like Full or Wet strokes, Misty or Dry strokes", which contains emotion thinking, but also embodies the "Imitation or truth, the performance of the personality of the universe and of life experience.


可以说,每幅字、画都凝结着民族与时代的心态,积淀着民族精神的文化层。作为艺术,作为中国人心理意识结晶的书画艺术,就更不待言了。但不是每个人都能够在较高的层次上欣赏书画艺术。它是如此的丰富而悠久,精致而又神妙!要理解与感受神秘的陶绘,狞厉的青铜纹饰,静穆的佛像,意在笔墨之外的文人画和高度抽象、流动的书法点划结构,都需要一定的知识和修养。欣赏中国书画,允许欣赏者持的某种主观态度,这需要情感与想象。需要理性、确切的知识与判断。将二者合而为一,是笔者试图向读者提供的既引导欣赏,又介绍知识的文章。


It can be said that each word, painting are the times of the nation and the state of mind, the accumulation of the national spirit of the cultural layer. As art, as the Chinese people's consciousness of the crystallization of calligraphy and painting art, it is not to be said. But not everyone can appreciate the art of painting and calligraphy at a higher level. It is so rich and long, exquisite and Wonderful! To understand and feel the mysterious Tao painting, Ferocious's Bronze decoration, Solemn Buddha, intended to pen and ink painting and the painting of the highly abstract, the flow of calligraphy point structure, all need a certain amount of knowledge and self-cultivation. Enjoy Chinese and Chinese painting, allowing viewers to hold some kind of subjective attitude, which requires Emotion and imagination calligraphy. Need rational, precise knowledge and judgment. The two is to be made one, the author tries to guide readers of both shows, and on knowledge of the article.


传统中国画以毛笔、水墨、矿物质颜料、绢帛、宣纸等为工具(原料)从表现形式上分工笔画和写意画。人物画强调“传神”,通过对人物面部表情(特别是眼神的刻画)、肢体语言、环境等的表现,达到以形写神、突出人物的内心世界。山水画强调“诗情画意”表现雄壮粗犷或秀丽俊美的山式、云吞雾幕——情景交融的意境创造即:将大自然的美与文人逸趣(中国文化)紧密地糅合在一起,用高远、平远、深远(或合三远)法的结构画面,计白当黑的处理方式。花鸟画则以托物言志、借物抒怀;来赞美生命、歌颂大自然——挥洒“胸臆”。


Chinese traditional painting Writing brush, with ink, mineral pigments, silk silk, Xuan paper as the tools (raw materials) the fine brushwork and freehand brushwork paintings from the form. Figure painting emphasizes "vivid graphic", through the facial expression of the characters (especially the eyes of the characterization), body language, the performance of the environment, to achieve the shape of God, the prominent character of the One's inner world. Landscape painting emphasizes "poetic Chinese painting" Majestic and rough or Beautiful and handsome Wonton fog screen hill, Is a fusion of feelings with the natural setting to create the mood namely: the nature of the beautiful and Literati Yiqu (China Culture) closer together, with High, distance, Parallel, distance. Far reaching (Or put the three methods together) structure picture, treatment of reckon blank as inked. The Use the shape painting of the object to express ambition, Borrow Shuhuai; life to praise, praise of nature, "what is deep in one's with heart thoughts or feelings deep in; one's heart.


在笔墨色彩上讲究:1、笔法丰富、有力度,或浸润凝重、或枯涩快疾;或中锋、或逆锋、或侧锋、或拖笔、或散笔。2、墨法多层次的变化(五墨六彩——五墨是指焦、浓、重、淡、清,这是墨阶,如同音乐中的音阶。六彩指黑、白、浓、淡、干、湿,它是绘画中用墨变化的因素。),或积墨、或破墨、或泼墨。3、色彩为随类赋彩等感性色彩,讲求墨气、沉着(色彩以墨骨为主,施以淡彩)并有工笔重彩。总体上追求传统文化(内在的)与以线造型的笔墨意趣(外显的)融合,即:诗情画意和“气韵”、“神韵”的表现。在造型上不拘泥于外形的肖似(逼真),而着重表现物象内在的“气韵”、“神韵”与画家“胸臆”的挥写(抒发)。在构图、透视上的处理有别于西方绘画,以多角度、多视点(移动)的“散点透视”来表现画家的主观意图自由组合空间。那幺我们究竟如何欣赏呢?笔者认为可从以下几个方面去欣赏:中国的历史、文化背景、文学艺术(诗情画意)和笔墨技巧以及中国画色彩的魅力等方面去品味(欣赏)中国画作品。


Pay attention to the Ink color: 1, abundant technique, intensity, or Infiltration solemn, or Dry Fast or Center pen, or Against; the front side tip of the writing, or brush, or drag pen or casual. 2, method the use ink and water multi-level changes (Five ink six color - ink refers to Coke, thick, heavy, light, clear, this is the order of ink, as the scale of music in the scale of of,, of). The six color refers to Black, white, thick, light, dry and wet, which is a factor in painting with ink changes , Or accumulate ink color, Or rid of original ink color, sprinkle Ink color get the. 3, conformity to kind in applying color colors The spirit emphasizes the emotional color, of, ink (Black bone to calm color, with light color) and meticulous. The pursuit of traditional culture in general (internal) and the line shape of the Ink interest (explicit) fusion, namely: Poetic Chinese painting and "artistic conception", "Romantic charm" performance. In the form of Not rigidly adhere to in the same shape (realistic), and images focused on the internal performance of "artistic conception" and "Romantic charm" and "thoughts or feelings deep in artist one's heart" wrote the play (Shu Fa). In the composition, perspective on the treatment is different from western painting, multi angle, multi point of view (mobile) Scattered Perspective to show the subjective intention of the artist's free combination of space. So how do we actually enjoy? The author thinks that to appreciate from the following aspects: Chinese history, cultural background, literature and art (poetic Chinese painting) and China painting color and the painting skills of the charm of the areas to taste (appreciate) China painting works.


一、                          中国画史:


One, China painting History:


中国的绘画艺术,源远流长,波澜壮阔,在世界美术史上形成了最为繁盛而特具风格的绘画体系(越是民族的就越具世界性);蔡元培倡导“美育代宗教”,美术教育始见重视;原属宫廷和权贵秘藏的历代名画,也已纷纷散至民间,继而介绍到国外,引起了世界人士的瞩目赞叹、争相研究,这情形,又反过来刺激着中国的学者,痛感我国近代对于传统艺术研究之不足。


Chinese painting art, has a long history, Surge high and sweep forward, in the world art history form the most prosperous and a special style of painting system (The more the nation the, more cosmopolitan); Cai Yuanpei "Aesthetic education on behalf of advocated religion", art education only to see the palace and the powerful hidden origin; paintings, also have Scattered to folk, then introduced to foreign countries, the world's attention and praise people eager to study this, in turn, stimulates the pain China scholars in China in the past generation for traditional art Lack of research.


考证世界文化发源地:西方为意大利半岛,东方为中国。意大利吸收埃及与中央亚细亚古代文明之素养,启发于希腊、罗马两时代,分布于全欧洲,移植于美洲;中国则采纳美索八达米亚(古希腊人称这个地区为“美索八达米亚”,意即两河之间的土地,所谓两河,是指在亚洲西部今伊拉克境内的底格里斯河和幼发拉底河。这个地区面积不大,大体上相当于现在的伊拉克。)与印度文明之灌溉,汇成东方特殊系统之泉源;沿朝鲜及我国台湾一带流传于琉球、日本诸域,绘画上亦不外此线索。故西方绘画者,以意大利为母地,而东方绘画者,以中国为始祖矣。而中国绘画受中国传统文化(儒家、释家、道家)的影响,特别是“中庸”、“中和”思想——不偏不倚、不左不右;“含而不露”的人文精神;因此,隐涵、博义是其特点;加之其所用之工具、发展之情况等,都与西方绘画的造型、追求、情趣等不大相同。


Textual research on the origin of world culture: the west is the Italy Peninsula and the East is china. Italy absorbed Egypt and Central Asia literacy of ancient civilization, inspired by Greece, Rome two times, distributed in Europe, transplanted to the America; adopt MSO Bada Mia Chinese (the ancient Greeks called this area "MSO Bada Mia", which means the land between the rivers, the rivers, is in Western Asia today in Iraq the Tigris and Euphrates River. The area is small, roughly equivalent to the present. ) and irrigation of India civilization, Huicheng East special source of the system; spread in the region along the Ryukyu, Japan North Korea and China's Taiwan area, but also drawing on this clue. The western painting, with Italy as the parent, and the Oriental painting, to be China for ancestor. The China painting by the traditional culture China (the Confucian, school Buddhism, Taoist school) influence, especially the "The Doctrine of the Mean", "Intermediate benevolence harmony" --, avoid leaning to either side neither left nor right; "humanistic spirit; so Include without revealing, conversational implicature, Broad erudition is its characteristic; in addition, the tools for the development of the situation, with the western style of painting, the pursuit of taste is not the same, etc..


我国自有绘画以来,经古人专心致志的探求,四、五千年间长期的演变和进步,作手名家,人才辈出,你追我赶,且遍布华夏,各发挥一代之光彩。如顾恺之、陆探微、张僧繇、展子虔等都能以画而称为大家;到了唐代,有李思训、王维等成为南北二大派(风格)的代表。之后,继承传统作家如风云涌起,可谓数不胜数。所以说上下数千年的中国绘画史,于叙事上简便起见,大略可分为古代史,上世史,中世史,近世史,四篇,以寻求其变迁推移之痕迹。


Chinese painting painting since the ancient Devote oneself heart and search by soul to, 4~5000 years of evolution and progress for a long time, Painter Famous, painter, and an, ancient in race each other, name for China, the generation of glory. Such as Gu Kaizhi, Lu Tanwei, Zhang sengyao, Zhan ziqian, and so on can be painted and called everyone; to the Tang Dynasty, Li Sixun, Wang Wei and other representatives of the north and south to become the two largest (style) representatives of the. After inheriting the traditional writers such as storm surges, is beyond count. So that thousands of years China in painting history, narrative simplicity, can be roughly divided into Ancient history, Ancient history Part One, medieval history, modern history, four, to seek the change over the traces.


而顾恺之《女史箴图》(《女史箴图》为中国东晋绘画作品,作者顾恺之。原作已佚,现存有唐代摹本,原有12段,因年代久远, 

 现存《女史箴图》仅剩9段,为绢本,设色,纵24.8厘米、横348.2厘米。此图依据西晋张华《女史箴》一文而作,原文十二节,所画亦为十二段,现存自“冯媛挡熊”至“女史司箴敢告庶姬”共9段。作品注重人物神态的表现,用笔细劲连绵,色彩典丽、秀润。1860年“火烧圆明园”后被掠夺并流失海外,现收藏于大英博物馆。由于英国方面知识欠缺,保管不善,将其拦腰截为两段,并出现了掉渣现象。故宫博物院另藏有宋代摹本,纸本墨色,水平稍逊,而多出樊姬、卫女2段。作品描绘女范事迹,有汉代冯媛以身挡熊,保护汉元帝的故事;有班婕妤拒绝与汉成帝同辇,以防成帝贪恋女色而误朝政的故事等。其余各段都是描写上层妇女应有的道德情感,带有一定的说教性质。虽然作品蕴涵了妇女应当遵守的道德信条,但是对上层妇女梳妆妆扮等日常牛活的描绘,真实而生动地再现了贵族妇女的娇柔、矜持,无论身姿、仪态、服饰都合乎她们的身份和个性。其作品注重人物神态的表现,用笔细劲连绵,色彩明丽、秀润。《女史箴图》中不同身份的宫廷妇女形象,是作者所处时代的妇女生活情景的反映。图中的妇女形象典雅端庄,神情温顺柔和,体现了顾恺之绘画用线的精细绵密,如“春蚕吐丝”,人物形神兼备。)亦尚留存于人间,足以供我们参考。此画曾被记录于《宣和画谱》(《宣和画谱》是北宋宣和(11191125)年间由官方主持编撰的宫廷所藏绘画作品的著录著作。全书共20卷,著录宋徽宗时宫廷所藏的魏晋以来历代绘画作品,共计画家231人,作品6396件。按题材分为10门:道释49人,人物33人,宫室4人,番族5人,龙鱼8人,山水41人,畜兽27人,花鸟46人,墨竹12人,蔬果6人。 此书的体例是每门先作叙论,其次是画家评传,包括籍贯、仕履、才具、学养、擅长、故实等,传后再具列作品目及件数。《宣和画谱》产生的时期,正值北宋画院制度最完备,院画创作达到高峰之时,也是最高统治者对历代绘画名作尽力搜罗、库充最富的时期。凭借这种种条件,才成就了这一著作,作为官方之著,理论的创新或许不算多,而其著录之完备,篇幅之大,却不失为巨著,对了解、研究绘画史有不可忽视的功用。)、《米芾画史》(《画史》是一部绘画鉴评作品,又名《米海岳画史》。全书共一卷,北宋米芾撰。《画史》约成书于1101年前后,举其平生所见晋代以来名画(其中亦间有未见者),品评优劣,鉴别真伪,考订谬误,指出风格特点,作者及藏处,甚至间及装裱、印章,亦收进画坛遗事秘闻,颇具资料价值。且由于此书材料多随手拈来,缺乏条理,加以部分文字古奥难解,很难入于上乘的理论、学术著作之列。)、《陈继儒妮古录》(《妮古录》明陈继儒撰。四卷。杂记书画、碑帖、古玩及遗闻轶事。陈继儒是明代著名的书画鉴藏家,富于收藏,精于鉴赏,并且撰写了多部书画著录。本文从多角度去研究陈继儒,包括他的山人身份的考察,《妮古录》的解读,书画鉴藏活动以及书画鉴定和书画创作等方面,以求整体上探讨陈继儒的书画鉴藏世界。本文从晚明山人展开讨论,作为具有山人普遍特征的陈继儒,交游、著书、鉴赏自真,为了给后人留下可供参考的书画文献,著录了《妮古录》。从《妮古录》当中,笔者看到了陈继儒的书画鉴藏活动和书画理论倾向,陈继儒与董其昌、项氏家族、李日华等书画收藏家交往频繁,其中与董其昌的书画交流更是长达三十多年之久,与江南地区书画名流的交往,拓宽了陈继儒的书画鉴定能力,培养了他典型的“文人画”倾向。陈继儒与董其昌的书画交流中,培养了二人共同的书画理论,陈继儒在其撰写的著书中大力提倡“南北宗”,为最终董其昌提出的“南北宗论”起到了很好的宣传作用。陈继儒的书画鉴藏活动,使其培养了独特的书画鉴定能力,分析了大量书画的真伪,也为陈继儒的书画创作提供了有益的帮助,最后笔者分析了陈继儒的画梅和山水画的特点。)、《朱彝尊曝书亭书画跋》(清初巨儒朱彝尊(16291709),清代词人、学者、藏书家。是一位学识渊博,独兼众长的学者。《曝书亭集》中序跋文尽显其考订之长。 朱彝尊长于考订,题跋之作尽显功力,一向受到高度的重视。)、《石渠宝笈》(《石渠宝笈》是清代乾隆、嘉庆年间的大型著录文献,初编成书于乾隆十年(1745),共编四十四卷。著录了清廷内府所藏历代书画藏品,分书画卷、轴、册九类。作为我国书画著录史上集大成者的旷古巨著,书中所著录的作品汇集了清皇室收藏最鼎盛时期的所有作品,而负责编撰的人员均为当时的书画大家或权威书画研究专家。2014年,江西美术出版社和故宫出版社在《石渠宝笈》的基础上,联合出版《故宫博物院藏清内府抄本合编石渠宝笈(精选配图版)》,为《石渠宝笈》配图,是前者在当代的新发展,增加了其研究价值和鉴藏价值。)等诸书。因清代末列强的掠夺而散失,今藏于英国博物馆。无论其为摹本,修缮本,都足以窥见顾氏(顾恺之)及当时画风都是与之相似。虽然在此之间的画风及技巧诸方面,有多次的变化,如:两汉的雄浑朴厚,六朝开始逐渐精细(工笔),隋朝就画得很精致华丽了;然而大体都是先以墨线勾轮廓(以线造型),再赋以彩色,并在此前后都是遵循这一程序(系统)来进行的;这种方法成为亚洲大陆共同的绘画式样。印度阿近他窟,我国敦煌石室,日本法隆寺金堂等之壁画,均系类似手法。(《宣和画谱》等古书籍介绍英文省略。


Gu Kaizhi "Admonitions Scroll" are still retained in the world, sufficient for our reference. This painting had been recorded in the "Xuanhe a book on the art of drawing or painting", "Mi Fu's painting", "Chen Jiru Ni Gu recorded", "Zhu Yizun exposed Shuting painting postscript", "Shih-ch'u Pao-chi" and other books. Loss due to plunder of foreign powers at the end of the Qing Dynasty, now preserved in the British museum. Whether it is a copy of the repair, are enough to get a glimpse of Gu (Gu Kaizhi) and the style are similar. Although in this style and skills between the various aspects, there are a number of changes, such as: the powerful Puhou the Han Dynasty, the Six Dynasties began gradually refined (meticulous), the Sui Dynasty painting a very delicate gorgeous; but generally are first in line hook contour (line modeling), and then given to color, and before and after all follow this procedure (system) to carry out; this method has become a common painting style of Asian continent. India, near his cave, China Dunhuang Shishi, Japan horyuji Jintang murals are in a similar way. (Admonitions Scroll"Xuanhe a on the art drawing or painting" and so on the introduction of the ancient books of. Omitted.) "book ellipsis


魏晋以后,我国的书学(书法)大发展,绘画上亦开始受书法运笔之影响。到了唐代就更盛行了,大大地发挥毛笔画线上的抑、扬、顿、挫之特有的趣味,开吴道子“兰叶描”(十八描的一种)等诸新法,一变隋陈细润之习,成正大雄浑之风格。 

 兼以唐、宋二代,禅风与诗理学之互相因缘,大大地促进了水墨画的发展,与山水、花鸟画之流行,使玩赏绘画者得到最大益处——“赏心悦目”;这样一来顿时成为当时社会(唐、宋)的新趋势(时尚),从而开辟了我国绘画史上的新纪元。元代的画风,虽是唐、宋二世的过渡之桥梁,然而大体上承唐宋之余波,仍可划入于“中世”。明、清二代,除明初画院中的水墨苍劲派外,其画风都可以概括为以“纤、浓、轻、软”呈现其特色,而存在有向近体转变的姿态。虽然,在这期间实际上是风俗画(传统绘画)之兴起与西洋画风的输入,这两者之间相互作用、相互交融,开一时之新生面,而呈现其变革(并延续至今)。然而这些变革的均系局部中之小波澜。虽然,绘画为艺术之一种,其演进之途程,总是依随当时的政治、思想、教育及特殊之环境而异其趋向。我国四、五千年来,随思潮之起落,战争之频发,政局之更易,则变化多端,其直接或间接地影响于绘画;因此,在绘画形式、绘画内容和绘画风格上各具变化与政治是形影之相随;也就是人们常说的:“艺术当随时代变”。


After the Wei and Jin Dynasties, the great development of Chinese calligraphy and calligraphy began to be influenced by calligraphy. The Tang Dynasty is more prevalent, greatly inhibit the development and carry forward, pause, and the unique taste brush line, Wu Daozi "Lanyemiao" A kind of technique of Chinese painting ("Eighteen trace" Chinese painting techniques) of the new law, a the Sui Dynasty expressed delicate Change, rounded habit. Become Zhengda vigorous style. And in Tang and Song Dynasty two dynasties, Zen and poetry theory of mutual karma, greatly promoted the development of ink painting, and popular landscape, flower and bird painting, the painting to get the maximum benefit, "Be good to hear or see"; so suddenly became the society of Tang and song (two the new trend of the dynasty) (Fashion), which opened a new era in the history of Chinese painting. Yuan's style, although Tang and Song Dynasties two transition of the bridge, but in the aftermath of the Tang and Song Dynasties, can be included in the "world". Ming and Qing Dynasties two, in addition to the Ming Dynasty at the beginning of the Vigorous ink genre academy, their style can be summarized as "shows its characteristics to thin, light, soft, shaggy, and there is close to body posture change. Although, in this period is actually Genre painting (traditional painting) and the rise of the Western painting style input, the interaction between them, mutual exchanges, opened at the new face, and showed its changes (and continues). However, these changes are small waves within the department. Although the painting as a kind of art, the evolution of the process, always in accordance with the prevailing political, ideological, special education and the environment vary its trend. In China from 4 to 5000 years, with thoughts of the ups and downs, the frequency of the war, the more councils, would be the most changeful, directly or indirectly impact on the painting; therefore, in the form of painting, painting and painting style on the content of the various changes and Xingying of politics is accompanied; is often said: "when the arts change with the times".


近一百年间特别是近二十年来随艺术流派、艺术形式的纷繁,以创新为目的画作也频频地出现在我们的视野里,真是“百花齐放、百家争鸣”。他们是:1、以传统绘画美为美的代表画家:齐白石、 

    张大千、 

   唐云、 

    溥佐、 

   于非闇、 

   黄胄、  

   王雪涛、  

    朱屺瞻、 

 田世光、 

    张世简、 

    叶浅予、  

   姚有多、  

 
白雪石、 

    傅抱石、 

   宋文治、 

 任率英、 

     陈师曾等。 

 

For nearly one hundred years, especially with numerous art schools and art form in the past twenty years, innovation for the purpose of the paintings also frequently appear in our field of vision, it is "All flowers bloom together, Contention of a hundred schools of thought". They are: 1, to the United States as the representative of the traditional painting artist: Qi Baishi, Zhang Daqian, Tang Yun, Yu feian, Huang Zhou, Pu Zuo, Wang Xuetao, Zhu Qizhan, Tian Shiguang, Zhang Shijian, Ye Qianyu, Yao Youduo, stone, Fu Baoshi, Ren Lvying, Chen Shiceng, song wenzhi.

 2、传统绘画美结合西方绘画美的代表画家:徐悲鸿、  

      蒋兆和、 

   林凤眠等。 

 

2, the traditional painting of the United States and the United States and the United States and the United States painting artist: Xu Beihong, Jiang Zhaohe, Lin Fengmian, etc..


待续


To be continued

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