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复庭 发表于  2019-02-12 08:09:24 0字 ( 0/144)

牛!主要还是那些公式难懂。

牛!主要还是那些公式难懂。

Time and Space: The issue of space bending on the Internet has been debated for a long time, and each has its own opinions, all of which have certain reasons. My view of space and time is that there is a spatial curvature in space and time, and this spatial curvature is an inherent property of space and time. In order to explain the problem of space-time bending, we must first explain some concepts about space-time bending, which is very helpful to correctly understand space-time bending.
My space and time, why do you say that? Because there are various theories and explanations for space and time, I will only explain my own understanding and theory of space and time. Space is the original objective existence. It has mathematical meaning and can express size. Space has nothing. It is the dialectical unity of existence and non-existence outside the objective existence. Space is uniform and flat, and time appears once matter appears in space, because time is a record of the evolution of matter. Matter changes the nature of space. When matter appears in space, its surrounding space-time is changed. Space - time is curved. Uniform and straight space is uneven and straight. Space - time begins to replace space to produce universe ( space - time ). The universe ( time and space ) has time, and matter begins to evolve. This is a universal law in the universe. The function of time has existed since the smallest unit atom of matter, which is the decay of matter. Atomic decay promotes the movement of matter and time can develop, which is a necessary condition for the existence of space and time. Matter and time cannot be separated. It seems quite difficult to understand. What is the relationship between matter and time? The wind, horses and cattle. In fact, matter is closely related to time and they are inseparable. Matter is an objective reality. Time is the record of the evolution of matter. Without the record of the evolution of matter, there would be no matter. Where was the past matter? Where is the decaying substance? Only by recording existence can the evolution process of matter reflect the trace of decaying matter and historical matter in the past. This kind of record is not like our handwritten notes! This is a record of time, which condenses the past existence of matter. Time and matter cannot be separated. There is a time factor in the smallest unit of matter. The natural attenuation property of matter is the factor of time in matter. Matter in space-time has this factor, which is the basis for coexistence of matter and time. As soon as matter appears in space, time appears and space-time begins to be born.
Space is originally objective and has mathematical significance. It was originally the initial state, the state before the formation of the universe. At this time, the space is the pure space without any matter or time, only the uniform and straight pure space state. When matter first appeared, time recorded the evolution of matter. Time was born, time and space were also born, and the universe was born. At this time, the space is not the original pure space, it has been transformed into the acquired space, the post - space. In time and space, back space is an unnecessary condition for the formation of four-dimensional space - time. This four-dimensional space-time is not a four-dimensional geometric space, but a space-time in which three-dimensional geometric space and time work together, i.e. the universe. This is a four-dimensional space with material evolution, both time and space. It has flesh and blood. It is a dynamic physical world. Time begins to develop forever. Matter begins to evolve forever. Celestial bodies begin to move, annihilate and resurrect forever. In such space - time, there is a phenomenon of back-space bending, which is an inherent property of space - time.
Space - time bending ( post - space - time bending ) represents the geometric shape of celestial bodies, which is the objective reality of celestial bodies occupying the boundary of the three-dimensional domain in space - time. After the celestial body moves, its domain returns to its original state of space and time, which is due to the fact that space and time are uniform and straight, and are originally only of mathematical significance. Celestial bodies occupy space-time bending, post-space-time bending and space bending. This spatial curvature is an inherent property of space - time, which is intrinsically related to Einstein's space-time curvature, and its manifestation is different, which is caused by the curvature of celestial body itself and affects the overall space-time property.
The following is Einstein's space-time curvature, which is a professional article:
Einstein's Cursed Ghost of Space and Time: Four Verifications of General Relativity
Introduction of Curved Space - Time
Einstein founded the kinematics based on the four-dimensional space-time transformation in 1905, that is, special relativity ( SR ). Before Einstein's view of space and time, two observers moving together used the same clock, so the expression of time was the same. However, the metaphorical concept of " simultaneity" encounters problems when considering high-speed motion, because the speed of the observation signal is the speed of light C, that is, 300,000 kilometers per second. When we move at a speed close to the speed of light, we must consider the time deviation caused by the signal speeds of the two. In our daily life, our speed is much lower than the speed of light, for example, the speed of 100 kilometers per hour, which is only 1 / 10 million of the speed of light, not a cause for concern. The orbital speed of an earth satellite is 10 km / s, which is 3 / 100,000 of the speed of light, so the relativistic effect should be considered when the GPS timing system of an orbiting satellite runs for a long time. The above is the reason for the introduction of four-dimensional space - time, that is, the consideration of the speed of light of signals that the reference systems communicate with each other. Here the motion of light and free particles are still straight lines, so time and space are straight.
Then Einstein began to consider the motion description in the gravitational field, and the universal gravitation of stars will bring about accelerated motion, which will be completely different from the space-time transformation of special relativity with uniform motion, where the observers move at a uniform speed. Until 1915, with the help of mathematicians Grossman and Hilbert, the special theory of relativity and Newton's law of universal gravitation were integrated into a whole, and the concept of " force" in the gravitational field was described as space-time curvature, i.e. light moves along geodesic lines in the gravitational field, which is like the great circle of the earth's surface. On the ground, our experience tells us that walking is a straight line. If your road is extended by 20 kilometers, you may find your own road bent downward because the earth is round. In the history of Euro - Mediterranean navigation, people found that distant ships slowly and gradually jumped out of our sight. This shows that the surface of the sea is spherical on a large scale. But in a small range, spherical myopia can be seen as a plane without any problem. By the same token, in a small area, space-time bending caused by gravity is not obvious, so flat space-time is a perfect approximation. When the gravitational field is strong and the observation area becomes larger, the bending effect must be considered, otherwise the error is too large.

Therefore, under the gravitational field, special relativity ( SR)+ Newton's gravitational theory become general relativity ( GR ). When the gravitational field is extremely weak, GR returns to SR; When the motion speed is slow, GR returns to Newton's theory of gravity. Therefore, General Relativity is the culmination of previous theoretical achievements. It does not violate the traditional experimental facts of low speed and weak gravity. In other words, special relativity and Newton's law of gravity are only approximate to Einstein's general relativity. So, what will be the unique new conclusion and prediction of general relativity? The projectile follows a parabola under the gravitational field, which is caused by the gravitational field, that is, the performance of curved space-time orbital motion. If there is no gravitational field, or if it moves along the radial direction of the center of the earth, then the projectile goes straight. Obviously, Newton's apple falls under the latter's geocentric pointing motion.
In this regard, Einstein's general theory of relativity proposed three verifiable experiments, which were subsequently verified by astronomers and physicists. This is the gravitational redshift, the precession of deflection of light and Mercury perihelion. Later, a fourth verification was added, that is, the time delay of radar echo.
I. gravitational redshift
General relativity holds that where gravity is strong, the inherent time passes slowly, that is, the closer to the celestial body, the slower the time. In this way, the period of light emitted by the atoms on the celestial body surface becomes longer. Since the speed of light is constant and the corresponding frequency becomes smaller, it will move towards the red light direction in the spectrum, which is called gravitational redshift. There are many compact celestial bodies in the universe. We can measure the frequency of the light emitted by them and compare it with the light emitted by the corresponding atoms of the earth. We find that the redshift is consistent with the prediction of relativity. In the early 1960s, physicists measured the redshift caused by the vertical propagation of light in the gravitational field of the earth by using the recoilless resonance absorption effect ( Mossbauer effect ) of gamma rays, and the results were consistent with the predictions of general relativity.
Second, deflection of light in Gravitational Field
According to the wave theory of light, light should not have any deflection in the gravitational field. According to the semi-classical mixed concept of " quantum theory plus Newton's theory of gravity", the mass of photon is calculated by Planck's formula E=hv and mass-energy formula e = MC 2, and then the deflection angle of light near the sun is calculated by Newton's law of universal gravitation, which is about 0.87 angular seconds. The deflection angle calculated by general relativity is 1.75 angular seconds, twice the former. In 1919, just after the First World War, two expedition teams led by British scientist Eddington made use of the opportunity of a total solar eclipse across the Atlantic Ocean to observe, and the result was about 1.7 angular seconds, which was just within the error range of relativistic experiments. The main cause of the error may be the deflection of the sun's atmosphere to light. In modern times, radio telescopes can observe the deflection of quasar radio signals in the solar gravitational field without waiting for the rare opportunity of a total solar eclipse. The high precision measurement results further confirmed the conclusion of general relativity. Furthermore, when the light emitted by the star light source passes near the gravitational field ( galaxies and black holes ), the light will bend like a lens. When the light path passes through different positions of the gravitational field, this will lead the ground observer to see the imaging of several stars. Such gravitational lens phenomenon is extremely common observed by astronomers.
Three, mercury perihelion precession
Astronomical observations recorded that Mercury's perihelion ( the position of the minor axis of the elliptical orbit ) moves 5600 angular seconds every 100 years. Researchers have considered various factors. According to Newton's theory, only 5557 angular seconds can be explained. The remaining 43 angular seconds do not know where they came from and cannot be explained. The calculation results of general relativity are different from the law of universal gravitation, which is inversely proportional to the square. This difference makes Mercury's perihelion move by 43 angular seconds every 100 years.
Fourth, radar echo time delay
General relativity holds that when photons approach the gravitational field, a time delay effect will occur. The trajectory of light rays bends in the gravitational field, making its path longer. This bending phenomenon can be equivalently regarded as a refraction, which is equivalent to slowing down the effective speed of light. Therefore, if a signal from a certain point in space passes through the vicinity of the sun, the time to reach the earth will be delayed. This idea was first proposed by American physicist Shapiro in 1964 to test the correctness of general relativity. Sending radar signals from the earth to the planets, receiving the signals reflected by the planets, and measuring the return time of the signals. If the sun happens to be on the line between the planet and the earth, the signal round trip time will be longer than without the sun. In this way, it can be checked whether the space is bent or not and whether there is time delay. In the 1960s, American physicists overcame many difficulties and completed relevant experiments. The research team has conducted radar experiments on Mercury, Venus and Mars successively, proving that there is indeed a delay phenomenon in radar echoes. The time delay of radar waves due to solar mass will reach about 200 milliseconds, and the results are consistent with the predictions of general relativity. In recent years, researchers have tested the moon as a reflection target, and the experimental accuracy has been improved. The results obtained are consistent with the theoretical values of general relativity.
In 2003, astronomers used Cassini's Saturn probe to repeat previous experiments. The measurement accuracy was within 0.002% and the observation was consistent with the theory. This was the highest precision general relativity experiment verification to date. In addition, in the timing observation of millisecond pulsar binary system, there is a delay in the arrival time of pulse signals from stars to the earth, which is consistent with the influence of general relativity gravitational time delay.
( From: Zhang Chengmin, Researcher of China National Observatory )
From this article, we can see the objective fact that both kinds of space-time bends exist, which is an inevitable objective existence. The article tells that scientists have combined the theory of universal gravitation with special relativity to form a new GR theory, which is an objective and effective theory that combines the advantages of low-speed and high-speed theories. Under different conditions, this GR theory will develop into the original theory. For example, when the gravitational field in space is weakening, GR will develop towards SR, so as to develop into SR ( Special Relativity ). When the object is developing towards the direction with low representation speed in space and time, GR will develop towards the theory of universal gravitation, so as to develop into the theory of universal gravitation. This is the relevant conclusion drawn from the actual experiments of scientists. There is a certain data error in this conclusion, which is the inevitable result of the relative contradiction of theory that insists on the combination of human consciousness and interaction of time and space. Its balance contradiction is the error value naturally released by theory.
The modern observation and understanding results found that there are a large number of electromagnetic fields and particles in space - time, which has turned space-time into an environment that is not a pure vacuum. It has mesons, just as people realized that there is ether in space-time when Einstein announced that ether does not exist, but now it does exist. Because this kind of existence may subvert Einstein's relative theory as some people dream. This is unlikely, because space-time existed when Einstein developed his theory of relativity. Now it is also necessary to really study whether this space-time meson affects the optical path and whether it is the result of the influence of conventional matter, diffraction. If there are a large number of space-time mesons, and they are electromagnetic fields and particles, then some similarities between space and time are confirmed, such as distortion of space and time.

Liu Tiejun

February 11, 2019

一只天鹅 发表于  2019-02-12 12:15:46 36字 ( 0/135)

不用全懂,大家在网上都是乐呵,知道有这回事就行了,互相学习,共同长知识。

Time and Space: The issue of space bending on the Internet has been debated for a long time, and each has its own opinions, all of which have certain reasons. My view of space and time is that there is a spatial curvature in space and time, and this spatial curvature is an inherent property of space and time. In order to explain the problem of space-time bending, we must first explain some concepts about space-time bending, which is very helpful to correctly understand space-time bending.
My space and time, why do you say that? Because there are various theories and explanations for space and time, I will only explain my own understanding and theory of space and time. Space is the original objective existence. It has mathematical meaning and can express size. Space has nothing. It is the dialectical unity of existence and non-existence outside the objective existence. Space is uniform and flat, and time appears once matter appears in space, because time is a record of the evolution of matter. Matter changes the nature of space. When matter appears in space, its surrounding space-time is changed. Space - time is curved. Uniform and straight space is uneven and straight. Space - time begins to replace space to produce universe ( space - time ). The universe ( time and space ) has time, and matter begins to evolve. This is a universal law in the universe. The function of time has existed since the smallest unit atom of matter, which is the decay of matter. Atomic decay promotes the movement of matter and time can develop, which is a necessary condition for the existence of space and time. Matter and time cannot be separated. It seems quite difficult to understand. What is the relationship between matter and time? The wind, horses and cattle. In fact, matter is closely related to time and they are inseparable. Matter is an objective reality. Time is the record of the evolution of matter. Without the record of the evolution of matter, there would be no matter. Where was the past matter? Where is the decaying substance? Only by recording existence can the evolution process of matter reflect the trace of decaying matter and historical matter in the past. This kind of record is not like our handwritten notes! This is a record of time, which condenses the past existence of matter. Time and matter cannot be separated. There is a time factor in the smallest unit of matter. The natural attenuation property of matter is the factor of time in matter. Matter in space-time has this factor, which is the basis for coexistence of matter and time. As soon as matter appears in space, time appears and space-time begins to be born.
Space is originally objective and has mathematical significance. It was originally the initial state, the state before the formation of the universe. At this time, the space is the pure space without any matter or time, only the uniform and straight pure space state. When matter first appeared, time recorded the evolution of matter. Time was born, time and space were also born, and the universe was born. At this time, the space is not the original pure space, it has been transformed into the acquired space, the post - space. In time and space, back space is an unnecessary condition for the formation of four-dimensional space - time. This four-dimensional space-time is not a four-dimensional geometric space, but a space-time in which three-dimensional geometric space and time work together, i.e. the universe. This is a four-dimensional space with material evolution, both time and space. It has flesh and blood. It is a dynamic physical world. Time begins to develop forever. Matter begins to evolve forever. Celestial bodies begin to move, annihilate and resurrect forever. In such space - time, there is a phenomenon of back-space bending, which is an inherent property of space - time.
Space - time bending ( post - space - time bending ) represents the geometric shape of celestial bodies, which is the objective reality of celestial bodies occupying the boundary of the three-dimensional domain in space - time. After the celestial body moves, its domain returns to its original state of space and time, which is due to the fact that space and time are uniform and straight, and are originally only of mathematical significance. Celestial bodies occupy space-time bending, post-space-time bending and space bending. This spatial curvature is an inherent property of space - time, which is intrinsically related to Einstein's space-time curvature, and its manifestation is different, which is caused by the curvature of celestial body itself and affects the overall space-time property.
The following is Einstein's space-time curvature, which is a professional article:
Einstein's Cursed Ghost of Space and Time: Four Verifications of General Relativity
Introduction of Curved Space - Time
Einstein founded the kinematics based on the four-dimensional space-time transformation in 1905, that is, special relativity ( SR ). Before Einstein's view of space and time, two observers moving together used the same clock, so the expression of time was the same. However, the metaphorical concept of " simultaneity" encounters problems when considering high-speed motion, because the speed of the observation signal is the speed of light C, that is, 300,000 kilometers per second. When we move at a speed close to the speed of light, we must consider the time deviation caused by the signal speeds of the two. In our daily life, our speed is much lower than the speed of light, for example, the speed of 100 kilometers per hour, which is only 1 / 10 million of the speed of light, not a cause for concern. The orbital speed of an earth satellite is 10 km / s, which is 3 / 100,000 of the speed of light, so the relativistic effect should be considered when the GPS timing system of an orbiting satellite runs for a long time. The above is the reason for the introduction of four-dimensional space - time, that is, the consideration of the speed of light of signals that the reference systems communicate with each other. Here the motion of light and free particles are still straight lines, so time and space are straight.
Then Einstein began to consider the motion description in the gravitational field, and the universal gravitation of stars will bring about accelerated motion, which will be completely different from the space-time transformation of special relativity with uniform motion, where the observers move at a uniform speed. Until 1915, with the help of mathematicians Grossman and Hilbert, the special theory of relativity and Newton's law of universal gravitation were integrated into a whole, and the concept of " force" in the gravitational field was described as space-time curvature, i.e. light moves along geodesic lines in the gravitational field, which is like the great circle of the earth's surface. On the ground, our experience tells us that walking is a straight line. If your road is extended by 20 kilometers, you may find your own road bent downward because the earth is round. In the history of Euro - Mediterranean navigation, people found that distant ships slowly and gradually jumped out of our sight. This shows that the surface of the sea is spherical on a large scale. But in a small range, spherical myopia can be seen as a plane without any problem. By the same token, in a small area, space-time bending caused by gravity is not obvious, so flat space-time is a perfect approximation. When the gravitational field is strong and the observation area becomes larger, the bending effect must be considered, otherwise the error is too large.

Therefore, under the gravitational field, special relativity ( SR)+ Newton's gravitational theory become general relativity ( GR ). When the gravitational field is extremely weak, GR returns to SR; When the motion speed is slow, GR returns to Newton's theory of gravity. Therefore, General Relativity is the culmination of previous theoretical achievements. It does not violate the traditional experimental facts of low speed and weak gravity. In other words, special relativity and Newton's law of gravity are only approximate to Einstein's general relativity. So, what will be the unique new conclusion and prediction of general relativity? The projectile follows a parabola under the gravitational field, which is caused by the gravitational field, that is, the performance of curved space-time orbital motion. If there is no gravitational field, or if it moves along the radial direction of the center of the earth, then the projectile goes straight. Obviously, Newton's apple falls under the latter's geocentric pointing motion.
In this regard, Einstein's general theory of relativity proposed three verifiable experiments, which were subsequently verified by astronomers and physicists. This is the gravitational redshift, the precession of deflection of light and Mercury perihelion. Later, a fourth verification was added, that is, the time delay of radar echo.
I. gravitational redshift
General relativity holds that where gravity is strong, the inherent time passes slowly, that is, the closer to the celestial body, the slower the time. In this way, the period of light emitted by the atoms on the celestial body surface becomes longer. Since the speed of light is constant and the corresponding frequency becomes smaller, it will move towards the red light direction in the spectrum, which is called gravitational redshift. There are many compact celestial bodies in the universe. We can measure the frequency of the light emitted by them and compare it with the light emitted by the corresponding atoms of the earth. We find that the redshift is consistent with the prediction of relativity. In the early 1960s, physicists measured the redshift caused by the vertical propagation of light in the gravitational field of the earth by using the recoilless resonance absorption effect ( Mossbauer effect ) of gamma rays, and the results were consistent with the predictions of general relativity.
Second, deflection of light in Gravitational Field
According to the wave theory of light, light should not have any deflection in the gravitational field. According to the semi-classical mixed concept of " quantum theory plus Newton's theory of gravity", the mass of photon is calculated by Planck's formula E=hv and mass-energy formula e = MC 2, and then the deflection angle of light near the sun is calculated by Newton's law of universal gravitation, which is about 0.87 angular seconds. The deflection angle calculated by general relativity is 1.75 angular seconds, twice the former. In 1919, just after the First World War, two expedition teams led by British scientist Eddington made use of the opportunity of a total solar eclipse across the Atlantic Ocean to observe, and the result was about 1.7 angular seconds, which was just within the error range of relativistic experiments. The main cause of the error may be the deflection of the sun's atmosphere to light. In modern times, radio telescopes can observe the deflection of quasar radio signals in the solar gravitational field without waiting for the rare opportunity of a total solar eclipse. The high precision measurement results further confirmed the conclusion of general relativity. Furthermore, when the light emitted by the star light source passes near the gravitational field ( galaxies and black holes ), the light will bend like a lens. When the light path passes through different positions of the gravitational field, this will lead the ground observer to see the imaging of several stars. Such gravitational lens phenomenon is extremely common observed by astronomers.
Three, mercury perihelion precession
Astronomical observations recorded that Mercury's perihelion ( the position of the minor axis of the elliptical orbit ) moves 5600 angular seconds every 100 years. Researchers have considered various factors. According to Newton's theory, only 5557 angular seconds can be explained. The remaining 43 angular seconds do not know where they came from and cannot be explained. The calculation results of general relativity are different from the law of universal gravitation, which is inversely proportional to the square. This difference makes Mercury's perihelion move by 43 angular seconds every 100 years.
Fourth, radar echo time delay
General relativity holds that when photons approach the gravitational field, a time delay effect will occur. The trajectory of light rays bends in the gravitational field, making its path longer. This bending phenomenon can be equivalently regarded as a refraction, which is equivalent to slowing down the effective speed of light. Therefore, if a signal from a certain point in space passes through the vicinity of the sun, the time to reach the earth will be delayed. This idea was first proposed by American physicist Shapiro in 1964 to test the correctness of general relativity. Sending radar signals from the earth to the planets, receiving the signals reflected by the planets, and measuring the return time of the signals. If the sun happens to be on the line between the planet and the earth, the signal round trip time will be longer than without the sun. In this way, it can be checked whether the space is bent or not and whether there is time delay. In the 1960s, American physicists overcame many difficulties and completed relevant experiments. The research team has conducted radar experiments on Mercury, Venus and Mars successively, proving that there is indeed a delay phenomenon in radar echoes. The time delay of radar waves due to solar mass will reach about 200 milliseconds, and the results are consistent with the predictions of general relativity. In recent years, researchers have tested the moon as a reflection target, and the experimental accuracy has been improved. The results obtained are consistent with the theoretical values of general relativity.
In 2003, astronomers used Cassini's Saturn probe to repeat previous experiments. The measurement accuracy was within 0.002% and the observation was consistent with the theory. This was the highest precision general relativity experiment verification to date. In addition, in the timing observation of millisecond pulsar binary system, there is a delay in the arrival time of pulse signals from stars to the earth, which is consistent with the influence of general relativity gravitational time delay.
( From: Zhang Chengmin, Researcher of China National Observatory )
From this article, we can see the objective fact that both kinds of space-time bends exist, which is an inevitable objective existence. The article tells that scientists have combined the theory of universal gravitation with special relativity to form a new GR theory, which is an objective and effective theory that combines the advantages of low-speed and high-speed theories. Under different conditions, this GR theory will develop into the original theory. For example, when the gravitational field in space is weakening, GR will develop towards SR, so as to develop into SR ( Special Relativity ). When the object is developing towards the direction with low representation speed in space and time, GR will develop towards the theory of universal gravitation, so as to develop into the theory of universal gravitation. This is the relevant conclusion drawn from the actual experiments of scientists. There is a certain data error in this conclusion, which is the inevitable result of the relative contradiction of theory that insists on the combination of human consciousness and interaction of time and space. Its balance contradiction is the error value naturally released by theory.
The modern observation and understanding results found that there are a large number of electromagnetic fields and particles in space - time, which has turned space-time into an environment that is not a pure vacuum. It has mesons, just as people realized that there is ether in space-time when Einstein announced that ether does not exist, but now it does exist. Because this kind of existence may subvert Einstein's relative theory as some people dream. This is unlikely, because space-time existed when Einstein developed his theory of relativity. Now it is also necessary to really study whether this space-time meson affects the optical path and whether it is the result of the influence of conventional matter, diffraction. If there are a large number of space-time mesons, and they are electromagnetic fields and particles, then some similarities between space and time are confirmed, such as distortion of space and time.

Liu Tiejun

February 11, 2019

真理论者 发表于  2019-02-12 12:27:34 380字 ( 0/143)

空间是事物存在范围的大小,空间中必有事物存在,你的其中没有事物存在的所谓“SPACE”纯属虚构;时间是事物变化过程的长短,时间中必有事物变化,你的其中...

Time and Space: The issue of space bending on the Internet has been debated for a long time, and each has its own opinions, all of which have certain reasons. My view of space and time is that there is a spatial curvature in space and time, and this spatial curvature is an inherent property of space and time. In order to explain the problem of space-time bending, we must first explain some concepts about space-time bending, which is very helpful to correctly understand space-time bending.
My space and time, why do you say that? Because there are various theories and explanations for space and time, I will only explain my own understanding and theory of space and time. Space is the original objective existence. It has mathematical meaning and can express size. Space has nothing. It is the dialectical unity of existence and non-existence outside the objective existence. Space is uniform and flat, and time appears once matter appears in space, because time is a record of the evolution of matter. Matter changes the nature of space. When matter appears in space, its surrounding space-time is changed. Space - time is curved. Uniform and straight space is uneven and straight. Space - time begins to replace space to produce universe ( space - time ). The universe ( time and space ) has time, and matter begins to evolve. This is a universal law in the universe. The function of time has existed since the smallest unit atom of matter, which is the decay of matter. Atomic decay promotes the movement of matter and time can develop, which is a necessary condition for the existence of space and time. Matter and time cannot be separated. It seems quite difficult to understand. What is the relationship between matter and time? The wind, horses and cattle. In fact, matter is closely related to time and they are inseparable. Matter is an objective reality. Time is the record of the evolution of matter. Without the record of the evolution of matter, there would be no matter. Where was the past matter? Where is the decaying substance? Only by recording existence can the evolution process of matter reflect the trace of decaying matter and historical matter in the past. This kind of record is not like our handwritten notes! This is a record of time, which condenses the past existence of matter. Time and matter cannot be separated. There is a time factor in the smallest unit of matter. The natural attenuation property of matter is the factor of time in matter. Matter in space-time has this factor, which is the basis for coexistence of matter and time. As soon as matter appears in space, time appears and space-time begins to be born.
Space is originally objective and has mathematical significance. It was originally the initial state, the state before the formation of the universe. At this time, the space is the pure space without any matter or time, only the uniform and straight pure space state. When matter first appeared, time recorded the evolution of matter. Time was born, time and space were also born, and the universe was born. At this time, the space is not the original pure space, it has been transformed into the acquired space, the post - space. In time and space, back space is an unnecessary condition for the formation of four-dimensional space - time. This four-dimensional space-time is not a four-dimensional geometric space, but a space-time in which three-dimensional geometric space and time work together, i.e. the universe. This is a four-dimensional space with material evolution, both time and space. It has flesh and blood. It is a dynamic physical world. Time begins to develop forever. Matter begins to evolve forever. Celestial bodies begin to move, annihilate and resurrect forever. In such space - time, there is a phenomenon of back-space bending, which is an inherent property of space - time.
Space - time bending ( post - space - time bending ) represents the geometric shape of celestial bodies, which is the objective reality of celestial bodies occupying the boundary of the three-dimensional domain in space - time. After the celestial body moves, its domain returns to its original state of space and time, which is due to the fact that space and time are uniform and straight, and are originally only of mathematical significance. Celestial bodies occupy space-time bending, post-space-time bending and space bending. This spatial curvature is an inherent property of space - time, which is intrinsically related to Einstein's space-time curvature, and its manifestation is different, which is caused by the curvature of celestial body itself and affects the overall space-time property.
The following is Einstein's space-time curvature, which is a professional article:
Einstein's Cursed Ghost of Space and Time: Four Verifications of General Relativity
Introduction of Curved Space - Time
Einstein founded the kinematics based on the four-dimensional space-time transformation in 1905, that is, special relativity ( SR ). Before Einstein's view of space and time, two observers moving together used the same clock, so the expression of time was the same. However, the metaphorical concept of " simultaneity" encounters problems when considering high-speed motion, because the speed of the observation signal is the speed of light C, that is, 300,000 kilometers per second. When we move at a speed close to the speed of light, we must consider the time deviation caused by the signal speeds of the two. In our daily life, our speed is much lower than the speed of light, for example, the speed of 100 kilometers per hour, which is only 1 / 10 million of the speed of light, not a cause for concern. The orbital speed of an earth satellite is 10 km / s, which is 3 / 100,000 of the speed of light, so the relativistic effect should be considered when the GPS timing system of an orbiting satellite runs for a long time. The above is the reason for the introduction of four-dimensional space - time, that is, the consideration of the speed of light of signals that the reference systems communicate with each other. Here the motion of light and free particles are still straight lines, so time and space are straight.
Then Einstein began to consider the motion description in the gravitational field, and the universal gravitation of stars will bring about accelerated motion, which will be completely different from the space-time transformation of special relativity with uniform motion, where the observers move at a uniform speed. Until 1915, with the help of mathematicians Grossman and Hilbert, the special theory of relativity and Newton's law of universal gravitation were integrated into a whole, and the concept of " force" in the gravitational field was described as space-time curvature, i.e. light moves along geodesic lines in the gravitational field, which is like the great circle of the earth's surface. On the ground, our experience tells us that walking is a straight line. If your road is extended by 20 kilometers, you may find your own road bent downward because the earth is round. In the history of Euro - Mediterranean navigation, people found that distant ships slowly and gradually jumped out of our sight. This shows that the surface of the sea is spherical on a large scale. But in a small range, spherical myopia can be seen as a plane without any problem. By the same token, in a small area, space-time bending caused by gravity is not obvious, so flat space-time is a perfect approximation. When the gravitational field is strong and the observation area becomes larger, the bending effect must be considered, otherwise the error is too large.

Therefore, under the gravitational field, special relativity ( SR)+ Newton's gravitational theory become general relativity ( GR ). When the gravitational field is extremely weak, GR returns to SR; When the motion speed is slow, GR returns to Newton's theory of gravity. Therefore, General Relativity is the culmination of previous theoretical achievements. It does not violate the traditional experimental facts of low speed and weak gravity. In other words, special relativity and Newton's law of gravity are only approximate to Einstein's general relativity. So, what will be the unique new conclusion and prediction of general relativity? The projectile follows a parabola under the gravitational field, which is caused by the gravitational field, that is, the performance of curved space-time orbital motion. If there is no gravitational field, or if it moves along the radial direction of the center of the earth, then the projectile goes straight. Obviously, Newton's apple falls under the latter's geocentric pointing motion.
In this regard, Einstein's general theory of relativity proposed three verifiable experiments, which were subsequently verified by astronomers and physicists. This is the gravitational redshift, the precession of deflection of light and Mercury perihelion. Later, a fourth verification was added, that is, the time delay of radar echo.
I. gravitational redshift
General relativity holds that where gravity is strong, the inherent time passes slowly, that is, the closer to the celestial body, the slower the time. In this way, the period of light emitted by the atoms on the celestial body surface becomes longer. Since the speed of light is constant and the corresponding frequency becomes smaller, it will move towards the red light direction in the spectrum, which is called gravitational redshift. There are many compact celestial bodies in the universe. We can measure the frequency of the light emitted by them and compare it with the light emitted by the corresponding atoms of the earth. We find that the redshift is consistent with the prediction of relativity. In the early 1960s, physicists measured the redshift caused by the vertical propagation of light in the gravitational field of the earth by using the recoilless resonance absorption effect ( Mossbauer effect ) of gamma rays, and the results were consistent with the predictions of general relativity.
Second, deflection of light in Gravitational Field
According to the wave theory of light, light should not have any deflection in the gravitational field. According to the semi-classical mixed concept of " quantum theory plus Newton's theory of gravity", the mass of photon is calculated by Planck's formula E=hv and mass-energy formula e = MC 2, and then the deflection angle of light near the sun is calculated by Newton's law of universal gravitation, which is about 0.87 angular seconds. The deflection angle calculated by general relativity is 1.75 angular seconds, twice the former. In 1919, just after the First World War, two expedition teams led by British scientist Eddington made use of the opportunity of a total solar eclipse across the Atlantic Ocean to observe, and the result was about 1.7 angular seconds, which was just within the error range of relativistic experiments. The main cause of the error may be the deflection of the sun's atmosphere to light. In modern times, radio telescopes can observe the deflection of quasar radio signals in the solar gravitational field without waiting for the rare opportunity of a total solar eclipse. The high precision measurement results further confirmed the conclusion of general relativity. Furthermore, when the light emitted by the star light source passes near the gravitational field ( galaxies and black holes ), the light will bend like a lens. When the light path passes through different positions of the gravitational field, this will lead the ground observer to see the imaging of several stars. Such gravitational lens phenomenon is extremely common observed by astronomers.
Three, mercury perihelion precession
Astronomical observations recorded that Mercury's perihelion ( the position of the minor axis of the elliptical orbit ) moves 5600 angular seconds every 100 years. Researchers have considered various factors. According to Newton's theory, only 5557 angular seconds can be explained. The remaining 43 angular seconds do not know where they came from and cannot be explained. The calculation results of general relativity are different from the law of universal gravitation, which is inversely proportional to the square. This difference makes Mercury's perihelion move by 43 angular seconds every 100 years.
Fourth, radar echo time delay
General relativity holds that when photons approach the gravitational field, a time delay effect will occur. The trajectory of light rays bends in the gravitational field, making its path longer. This bending phenomenon can be equivalently regarded as a refraction, which is equivalent to slowing down the effective speed of light. Therefore, if a signal from a certain point in space passes through the vicinity of the sun, the time to reach the earth will be delayed. This idea was first proposed by American physicist Shapiro in 1964 to test the correctness of general relativity. Sending radar signals from the earth to the planets, receiving the signals reflected by the planets, and measuring the return time of the signals. If the sun happens to be on the line between the planet and the earth, the signal round trip time will be longer than without the sun. In this way, it can be checked whether the space is bent or not and whether there is time delay. In the 1960s, American physicists overcame many difficulties and completed relevant experiments. The research team has conducted radar experiments on Mercury, Venus and Mars successively, proving that there is indeed a delay phenomenon in radar echoes. The time delay of radar waves due to solar mass will reach about 200 milliseconds, and the results are consistent with the predictions of general relativity. In recent years, researchers have tested the moon as a reflection target, and the experimental accuracy has been improved. The results obtained are consistent with the theoretical values of general relativity.
In 2003, astronomers used Cassini's Saturn probe to repeat previous experiments. The measurement accuracy was within 0.002% and the observation was consistent with the theory. This was the highest precision general relativity experiment verification to date. In addition, in the timing observation of millisecond pulsar binary system, there is a delay in the arrival time of pulse signals from stars to the earth, which is consistent with the influence of general relativity gravitational time delay.
( From: Zhang Chengmin, Researcher of China National Observatory )
From this article, we can see the objective fact that both kinds of space-time bends exist, which is an inevitable objective existence. The article tells that scientists have combined the theory of universal gravitation with special relativity to form a new GR theory, which is an objective and effective theory that combines the advantages of low-speed and high-speed theories. Under different conditions, this GR theory will develop into the original theory. For example, when the gravitational field in space is weakening, GR will develop towards SR, so as to develop into SR ( Special Relativity ). When the object is developing towards the direction with low representation speed in space and time, GR will develop towards the theory of universal gravitation, so as to develop into the theory of universal gravitation. This is the relevant conclusion drawn from the actual experiments of scientists. There is a certain data error in this conclusion, which is the inevitable result of the relative contradiction of theory that insists on the combination of human consciousness and interaction of time and space. Its balance contradiction is the error value naturally released by theory.
The modern observation and understanding results found that there are a large number of electromagnetic fields and particles in space - time, which has turned space-time into an environment that is not a pure vacuum. It has mesons, just as people realized that there is ether in space-time when Einstein announced that ether does not exist, but now it does exist. Because this kind of existence may subvert Einstein's relative theory as some people dream. This is unlikely, because space-time existed when Einstein developed his theory of relativity. Now it is also necessary to really study whether this space-time meson affects the optical path and whether it is the result of the influence of conventional matter, diffraction. If there are a large number of space-time mesons, and they are electromagnetic fields and particles, then some similarities between space and time are confirmed, such as distortion of space and time.

Liu Tiejun

February 11, 2019

复庭 发表于  2019-02-12 13:09:34 0字 ( 0/141)

回复@一只天鹅:你要说服他不可能。他只认马派。应该说属于知识缺陷。不能过于上纲的说他。

回复@一只天鹅:你要说服他不可能。他只认马派。应该说属于知识缺陷。不能过于上纲的说他。

Time and Space: The issue of space bending on the Internet has been debated for a long time, and each has its own opinions, all of which have certain reasons. My view of space and time is that there is a spatial curvature in space and time, and this spatial curvature is an inherent property of space and time. In order to explain the problem of space-time bending, we must first explain some concepts about space-time bending, which is very helpful to correctly understand space-time bending.
My space and time, why do you say that? Because there are various theories and explanations for space and time, I will only explain my own understanding and theory of space and time. Space is the original objective existence. It has mathematical meaning and can express size. Space has nothing. It is the dialectical unity of existence and non-existence outside the objective existence. Space is uniform and flat, and time appears once matter appears in space, because time is a record of the evolution of matter. Matter changes the nature of space. When matter appears in space, its surrounding space-time is changed. Space - time is curved. Uniform and straight space is uneven and straight. Space - time begins to replace space to produce universe ( space - time ). The universe ( time and space ) has time, and matter begins to evolve. This is a universal law in the universe. The function of time has existed since the smallest unit atom of matter, which is the decay of matter. Atomic decay promotes the movement of matter and time can develop, which is a necessary condition for the existence of space and time. Matter and time cannot be separated. It seems quite difficult to understand. What is the relationship between matter and time? The wind, horses and cattle. In fact, matter is closely related to time and they are inseparable. Matter is an objective reality. Time is the record of the evolution of matter. Without the record of the evolution of matter, there would be no matter. Where was the past matter? Where is the decaying substance? Only by recording existence can the evolution process of matter reflect the trace of decaying matter and historical matter in the past. This kind of record is not like our handwritten notes! This is a record of time, which condenses the past existence of matter. Time and matter cannot be separated. There is a time factor in the smallest unit of matter. The natural attenuation property of matter is the factor of time in matter. Matter in space-time has this factor, which is the basis for coexistence of matter and time. As soon as matter appears in space, time appears and space-time begins to be born.
Space is originally objective and has mathematical significance. It was originally the initial state, the state before the formation of the universe. At this time, the space is the pure space without any matter or time, only the uniform and straight pure space state. When matter first appeared, time recorded the evolution of matter. Time was born, time and space were also born, and the universe was born. At this time, the space is not the original pure space, it has been transformed into the acquired space, the post - space. In time and space, back space is an unnecessary condition for the formation of four-dimensional space - time. This four-dimensional space-time is not a four-dimensional geometric space, but a space-time in which three-dimensional geometric space and time work together, i.e. the universe. This is a four-dimensional space with material evolution, both time and space. It has flesh and blood. It is a dynamic physical world. Time begins to develop forever. Matter begins to evolve forever. Celestial bodies begin to move, annihilate and resurrect forever. In such space - time, there is a phenomenon of back-space bending, which is an inherent property of space - time.
Space - time bending ( post - space - time bending ) represents the geometric shape of celestial bodies, which is the objective reality of celestial bodies occupying the boundary of the three-dimensional domain in space - time. After the celestial body moves, its domain returns to its original state of space and time, which is due to the fact that space and time are uniform and straight, and are originally only of mathematical significance. Celestial bodies occupy space-time bending, post-space-time bending and space bending. This spatial curvature is an inherent property of space - time, which is intrinsically related to Einstein's space-time curvature, and its manifestation is different, which is caused by the curvature of celestial body itself and affects the overall space-time property.
The following is Einstein's space-time curvature, which is a professional article:
Einstein's Cursed Ghost of Space and Time: Four Verifications of General Relativity
Introduction of Curved Space - Time
Einstein founded the kinematics based on the four-dimensional space-time transformation in 1905, that is, special relativity ( SR ). Before Einstein's view of space and time, two observers moving together used the same clock, so the expression of time was the same. However, the metaphorical concept of " simultaneity" encounters problems when considering high-speed motion, because the speed of the observation signal is the speed of light C, that is, 300,000 kilometers per second. When we move at a speed close to the speed of light, we must consider the time deviation caused by the signal speeds of the two. In our daily life, our speed is much lower than the speed of light, for example, the speed of 100 kilometers per hour, which is only 1 / 10 million of the speed of light, not a cause for concern. The orbital speed of an earth satellite is 10 km / s, which is 3 / 100,000 of the speed of light, so the relativistic effect should be considered when the GPS timing system of an orbiting satellite runs for a long time. The above is the reason for the introduction of four-dimensional space - time, that is, the consideration of the speed of light of signals that the reference systems communicate with each other. Here the motion of light and free particles are still straight lines, so time and space are straight.
Then Einstein began to consider the motion description in the gravitational field, and the universal gravitation of stars will bring about accelerated motion, which will be completely different from the space-time transformation of special relativity with uniform motion, where the observers move at a uniform speed. Until 1915, with the help of mathematicians Grossman and Hilbert, the special theory of relativity and Newton's law of universal gravitation were integrated into a whole, and the concept of " force" in the gravitational field was described as space-time curvature, i.e. light moves along geodesic lines in the gravitational field, which is like the great circle of the earth's surface. On the ground, our experience tells us that walking is a straight line. If your road is extended by 20 kilometers, you may find your own road bent downward because the earth is round. In the history of Euro - Mediterranean navigation, people found that distant ships slowly and gradually jumped out of our sight. This shows that the surface of the sea is spherical on a large scale. But in a small range, spherical myopia can be seen as a plane without any problem. By the same token, in a small area, space-time bending caused by gravity is not obvious, so flat space-time is a perfect approximation. When the gravitational field is strong and the observation area becomes larger, the bending effect must be considered, otherwise the error is too large.

Therefore, under the gravitational field, special relativity ( SR)+ Newton's gravitational theory become general relativity ( GR ). When the gravitational field is extremely weak, GR returns to SR; When the motion speed is slow, GR returns to Newton's theory of gravity. Therefore, General Relativity is the culmination of previous theoretical achievements. It does not violate the traditional experimental facts of low speed and weak gravity. In other words, special relativity and Newton's law of gravity are only approximate to Einstein's general relativity. So, what will be the unique new conclusion and prediction of general relativity? The projectile follows a parabola under the gravitational field, which is caused by the gravitational field, that is, the performance of curved space-time orbital motion. If there is no gravitational field, or if it moves along the radial direction of the center of the earth, then the projectile goes straight. Obviously, Newton's apple falls under the latter's geocentric pointing motion.
In this regard, Einstein's general theory of relativity proposed three verifiable experiments, which were subsequently verified by astronomers and physicists. This is the gravitational redshift, the precession of deflection of light and Mercury perihelion. Later, a fourth verification was added, that is, the time delay of radar echo.
I. gravitational redshift
General relativity holds that where gravity is strong, the inherent time passes slowly, that is, the closer to the celestial body, the slower the time. In this way, the period of light emitted by the atoms on the celestial body surface becomes longer. Since the speed of light is constant and the corresponding frequency becomes smaller, it will move towards the red light direction in the spectrum, which is called gravitational redshift. There are many compact celestial bodies in the universe. We can measure the frequency of the light emitted by them and compare it with the light emitted by the corresponding atoms of the earth. We find that the redshift is consistent with the prediction of relativity. In the early 1960s, physicists measured the redshift caused by the vertical propagation of light in the gravitational field of the earth by using the recoilless resonance absorption effect ( Mossbauer effect ) of gamma rays, and the results were consistent with the predictions of general relativity.
Second, deflection of light in Gravitational Field
According to the wave theory of light, light should not have any deflection in the gravitational field. According to the semi-classical mixed concept of " quantum theory plus Newton's theory of gravity", the mass of photon is calculated by Planck's formula E=hv and mass-energy formula e = MC 2, and then the deflection angle of light near the sun is calculated by Newton's law of universal gravitation, which is about 0.87 angular seconds. The deflection angle calculated by general relativity is 1.75 angular seconds, twice the former. In 1919, just after the First World War, two expedition teams led by British scientist Eddington made use of the opportunity of a total solar eclipse across the Atlantic Ocean to observe, and the result was about 1.7 angular seconds, which was just within the error range of relativistic experiments. The main cause of the error may be the deflection of the sun's atmosphere to light. In modern times, radio telescopes can observe the deflection of quasar radio signals in the solar gravitational field without waiting for the rare opportunity of a total solar eclipse. The high precision measurement results further confirmed the conclusion of general relativity. Furthermore, when the light emitted by the star light source passes near the gravitational field ( galaxies and black holes ), the light will bend like a lens. When the light path passes through different positions of the gravitational field, this will lead the ground observer to see the imaging of several stars. Such gravitational lens phenomenon is extremely common observed by astronomers.
Three, mercury perihelion precession
Astronomical observations recorded that Mercury's perihelion ( the position of the minor axis of the elliptical orbit ) moves 5600 angular seconds every 100 years. Researchers have considered various factors. According to Newton's theory, only 5557 angular seconds can be explained. The remaining 43 angular seconds do not know where they came from and cannot be explained. The calculation results of general relativity are different from the law of universal gravitation, which is inversely proportional to the square. This difference makes Mercury's perihelion move by 43 angular seconds every 100 years.
Fourth, radar echo time delay
General relativity holds that when photons approach the gravitational field, a time delay effect will occur. The trajectory of light rays bends in the gravitational field, making its path longer. This bending phenomenon can be equivalently regarded as a refraction, which is equivalent to slowing down the effective speed of light. Therefore, if a signal from a certain point in space passes through the vicinity of the sun, the time to reach the earth will be delayed. This idea was first proposed by American physicist Shapiro in 1964 to test the correctness of general relativity. Sending radar signals from the earth to the planets, receiving the signals reflected by the planets, and measuring the return time of the signals. If the sun happens to be on the line between the planet and the earth, the signal round trip time will be longer than without the sun. In this way, it can be checked whether the space is bent or not and whether there is time delay. In the 1960s, American physicists overcame many difficulties and completed relevant experiments. The research team has conducted radar experiments on Mercury, Venus and Mars successively, proving that there is indeed a delay phenomenon in radar echoes. The time delay of radar waves due to solar mass will reach about 200 milliseconds, and the results are consistent with the predictions of general relativity. In recent years, researchers have tested the moon as a reflection target, and the experimental accuracy has been improved. The results obtained are consistent with the theoretical values of general relativity.
In 2003, astronomers used Cassini's Saturn probe to repeat previous experiments. The measurement accuracy was within 0.002% and the observation was consistent with the theory. This was the highest precision general relativity experiment verification to date. In addition, in the timing observation of millisecond pulsar binary system, there is a delay in the arrival time of pulse signals from stars to the earth, which is consistent with the influence of general relativity gravitational time delay.
( From: Zhang Chengmin, Researcher of China National Observatory )
From this article, we can see the objective fact that both kinds of space-time bends exist, which is an inevitable objective existence. The article tells that scientists have combined the theory of universal gravitation with special relativity to form a new GR theory, which is an objective and effective theory that combines the advantages of low-speed and high-speed theories. Under different conditions, this GR theory will develop into the original theory. For example, when the gravitational field in space is weakening, GR will develop towards SR, so as to develop into SR ( Special Relativity ). When the object is developing towards the direction with low representation speed in space and time, GR will develop towards the theory of universal gravitation, so as to develop into the theory of universal gravitation. This is the relevant conclusion drawn from the actual experiments of scientists. There is a certain data error in this conclusion, which is the inevitable result of the relative contradiction of theory that insists on the combination of human consciousness and interaction of time and space. Its balance contradiction is the error value naturally released by theory.
The modern observation and understanding results found that there are a large number of electromagnetic fields and particles in space - time, which has turned space-time into an environment that is not a pure vacuum. It has mesons, just as people realized that there is ether in space-time when Einstein announced that ether does not exist, but now it does exist. Because this kind of existence may subvert Einstein's relative theory as some people dream. This is unlikely, because space-time existed when Einstein developed his theory of relativity. Now it is also necessary to really study whether this space-time meson affects the optical path and whether it is the result of the influence of conventional matter, diffraction. If there are a large number of space-time mesons, and they are electromagnetic fields and particles, then some similarities between space and time are confirmed, such as distortion of space and time.

Liu Tiejun

February 11, 2019

复庭 发表于  2019-02-12 19:40:02 0字 ( 0/112)

关键是相对论经得起检验。有实际产品。

关键是相对论经得起检验。有实际产品。

Time and Space: The issue of space bending on the Internet has been debated for a long time, and each has its own opinions, all of which have certain reasons. My view of space and time is that there is a spatial curvature in space and time, and this spatial curvature is an inherent property of space and time. In order to explain the problem of space-time bending, we must first explain some concepts about space-time bending, which is very helpful to correctly understand space-time bending.
My space and time, why do you say that? Because there are various theories and explanations for space and time, I will only explain my own understanding and theory of space and time. Space is the original objective existence. It has mathematical meaning and can express size. Space has nothing. It is the dialectical unity of existence and non-existence outside the objective existence. Space is uniform and flat, and time appears once matter appears in space, because time is a record of the evolution of matter. Matter changes the nature of space. When matter appears in space, its surrounding space-time is changed. Space - time is curved. Uniform and straight space is uneven and straight. Space - time begins to replace space to produce universe ( space - time ). The universe ( time and space ) has time, and matter begins to evolve. This is a universal law in the universe. The function of time has existed since the smallest unit atom of matter, which is the decay of matter. Atomic decay promotes the movement of matter and time can develop, which is a necessary condition for the existence of space and time. Matter and time cannot be separated. It seems quite difficult to understand. What is the relationship between matter and time? The wind, horses and cattle. In fact, matter is closely related to time and they are inseparable. Matter is an objective reality. Time is the record of the evolution of matter. Without the record of the evolution of matter, there would be no matter. Where was the past matter? Where is the decaying substance? Only by recording existence can the evolution process of matter reflect the trace of decaying matter and historical matter in the past. This kind of record is not like our handwritten notes! This is a record of time, which condenses the past existence of matter. Time and matter cannot be separated. There is a time factor in the smallest unit of matter. The natural attenuation property of matter is the factor of time in matter. Matter in space-time has this factor, which is the basis for coexistence of matter and time. As soon as matter appears in space, time appears and space-time begins to be born.
Space is originally objective and has mathematical significance. It was originally the initial state, the state before the formation of the universe. At this time, the space is the pure space without any matter or time, only the uniform and straight pure space state. When matter first appeared, time recorded the evolution of matter. Time was born, time and space were also born, and the universe was born. At this time, the space is not the original pure space, it has been transformed into the acquired space, the post - space. In time and space, back space is an unnecessary condition for the formation of four-dimensional space - time. This four-dimensional space-time is not a four-dimensional geometric space, but a space-time in which three-dimensional geometric space and time work together, i.e. the universe. This is a four-dimensional space with material evolution, both time and space. It has flesh and blood. It is a dynamic physical world. Time begins to develop forever. Matter begins to evolve forever. Celestial bodies begin to move, annihilate and resurrect forever. In such space - time, there is a phenomenon of back-space bending, which is an inherent property of space - time.
Space - time bending ( post - space - time bending ) represents the geometric shape of celestial bodies, which is the objective reality of celestial bodies occupying the boundary of the three-dimensional domain in space - time. After the celestial body moves, its domain returns to its original state of space and time, which is due to the fact that space and time are uniform and straight, and are originally only of mathematical significance. Celestial bodies occupy space-time bending, post-space-time bending and space bending. This spatial curvature is an inherent property of space - time, which is intrinsically related to Einstein's space-time curvature, and its manifestation is different, which is caused by the curvature of celestial body itself and affects the overall space-time property.
The following is Einstein's space-time curvature, which is a professional article:
Einstein's Cursed Ghost of Space and Time: Four Verifications of General Relativity
Introduction of Curved Space - Time
Einstein founded the kinematics based on the four-dimensional space-time transformation in 1905, that is, special relativity ( SR ). Before Einstein's view of space and time, two observers moving together used the same clock, so the expression of time was the same. However, the metaphorical concept of " simultaneity" encounters problems when considering high-speed motion, because the speed of the observation signal is the speed of light C, that is, 300,000 kilometers per second. When we move at a speed close to the speed of light, we must consider the time deviation caused by the signal speeds of the two. In our daily life, our speed is much lower than the speed of light, for example, the speed of 100 kilometers per hour, which is only 1 / 10 million of the speed of light, not a cause for concern. The orbital speed of an earth satellite is 10 km / s, which is 3 / 100,000 of the speed of light, so the relativistic effect should be considered when the GPS timing system of an orbiting satellite runs for a long time. The above is the reason for the introduction of four-dimensional space - time, that is, the consideration of the speed of light of signals that the reference systems communicate with each other. Here the motion of light and free particles are still straight lines, so time and space are straight.
Then Einstein began to consider the motion description in the gravitational field, and the universal gravitation of stars will bring about accelerated motion, which will be completely different from the space-time transformation of special relativity with uniform motion, where the observers move at a uniform speed. Until 1915, with the help of mathematicians Grossman and Hilbert, the special theory of relativity and Newton's law of universal gravitation were integrated into a whole, and the concept of " force" in the gravitational field was described as space-time curvature, i.e. light moves along geodesic lines in the gravitational field, which is like the great circle of the earth's surface. On the ground, our experience tells us that walking is a straight line. If your road is extended by 20 kilometers, you may find your own road bent downward because the earth is round. In the history of Euro - Mediterranean navigation, people found that distant ships slowly and gradually jumped out of our sight. This shows that the surface of the sea is spherical on a large scale. But in a small range, spherical myopia can be seen as a plane without any problem. By the same token, in a small area, space-time bending caused by gravity is not obvious, so flat space-time is a perfect approximation. When the gravitational field is strong and the observation area becomes larger, the bending effect must be considered, otherwise the error is too large.

Therefore, under the gravitational field, special relativity ( SR)+ Newton's gravitational theory become general relativity ( GR ). When the gravitational field is extremely weak, GR returns to SR; When the motion speed is slow, GR returns to Newton's theory of gravity. Therefore, General Relativity is the culmination of previous theoretical achievements. It does not violate the traditional experimental facts of low speed and weak gravity. In other words, special relativity and Newton's law of gravity are only approximate to Einstein's general relativity. So, what will be the unique new conclusion and prediction of general relativity? The projectile follows a parabola under the gravitational field, which is caused by the gravitational field, that is, the performance of curved space-time orbital motion. If there is no gravitational field, or if it moves along the radial direction of the center of the earth, then the projectile goes straight. Obviously, Newton's apple falls under the latter's geocentric pointing motion.
In this regard, Einstein's general theory of relativity proposed three verifiable experiments, which were subsequently verified by astronomers and physicists. This is the gravitational redshift, the precession of deflection of light and Mercury perihelion. Later, a fourth verification was added, that is, the time delay of radar echo.
I. gravitational redshift
General relativity holds that where gravity is strong, the inherent time passes slowly, that is, the closer to the celestial body, the slower the time. In this way, the period of light emitted by the atoms on the celestial body surface becomes longer. Since the speed of light is constant and the corresponding frequency becomes smaller, it will move towards the red light direction in the spectrum, which is called gravitational redshift. There are many compact celestial bodies in the universe. We can measure the frequency of the light emitted by them and compare it with the light emitted by the corresponding atoms of the earth. We find that the redshift is consistent with the prediction of relativity. In the early 1960s, physicists measured the redshift caused by the vertical propagation of light in the gravitational field of the earth by using the recoilless resonance absorption effect ( Mossbauer effect ) of gamma rays, and the results were consistent with the predictions of general relativity.
Second, deflection of light in Gravitational Field
According to the wave theory of light, light should not have any deflection in the gravitational field. According to the semi-classical mixed concept of " quantum theory plus Newton's theory of gravity", the mass of photon is calculated by Planck's formula E=hv and mass-energy formula e = MC 2, and then the deflection angle of light near the sun is calculated by Newton's law of universal gravitation, which is about 0.87 angular seconds. The deflection angle calculated by general relativity is 1.75 angular seconds, twice the former. In 1919, just after the First World War, two expedition teams led by British scientist Eddington made use of the opportunity of a total solar eclipse across the Atlantic Ocean to observe, and the result was about 1.7 angular seconds, which was just within the error range of relativistic experiments. The main cause of the error may be the deflection of the sun's atmosphere to light. In modern times, radio telescopes can observe the deflection of quasar radio signals in the solar gravitational field without waiting for the rare opportunity of a total solar eclipse. The high precision measurement results further confirmed the conclusion of general relativity. Furthermore, when the light emitted by the star light source passes near the gravitational field ( galaxies and black holes ), the light will bend like a lens. When the light path passes through different positions of the gravitational field, this will lead the ground observer to see the imaging of several stars. Such gravitational lens phenomenon is extremely common observed by astronomers.
Three, mercury perihelion precession
Astronomical observations recorded that Mercury's perihelion ( the position of the minor axis of the elliptical orbit ) moves 5600 angular seconds every 100 years. Researchers have considered various factors. According to Newton's theory, only 5557 angular seconds can be explained. The remaining 43 angular seconds do not know where they came from and cannot be explained. The calculation results of general relativity are different from the law of universal gravitation, which is inversely proportional to the square. This difference makes Mercury's perihelion move by 43 angular seconds every 100 years.
Fourth, radar echo time delay
General relativity holds that when photons approach the gravitational field, a time delay effect will occur. The trajectory of light rays bends in the gravitational field, making its path longer. This bending phenomenon can be equivalently regarded as a refraction, which is equivalent to slowing down the effective speed of light. Therefore, if a signal from a certain point in space passes through the vicinity of the sun, the time to reach the earth will be delayed. This idea was first proposed by American physicist Shapiro in 1964 to test the correctness of general relativity. Sending radar signals from the earth to the planets, receiving the signals reflected by the planets, and measuring the return time of the signals. If the sun happens to be on the line between the planet and the earth, the signal round trip time will be longer than without the sun. In this way, it can be checked whether the space is bent or not and whether there is time delay. In the 1960s, American physicists overcame many difficulties and completed relevant experiments. The research team has conducted radar experiments on Mercury, Venus and Mars successively, proving that there is indeed a delay phenomenon in radar echoes. The time delay of radar waves due to solar mass will reach about 200 milliseconds, and the results are consistent with the predictions of general relativity. In recent years, researchers have tested the moon as a reflection target, and the experimental accuracy has been improved. The results obtained are consistent with the theoretical values of general relativity.
In 2003, astronomers used Cassini's Saturn probe to repeat previous experiments. The measurement accuracy was within 0.002% and the observation was consistent with the theory. This was the highest precision general relativity experiment verification to date. In addition, in the timing observation of millisecond pulsar binary system, there is a delay in the arrival time of pulse signals from stars to the earth, which is consistent with the influence of general relativity gravitational time delay.
( From: Zhang Chengmin, Researcher of China National Observatory )
From this article, we can see the objective fact that both kinds of space-time bends exist, which is an inevitable objective existence. The article tells that scientists have combined the theory of universal gravitation with special relativity to form a new GR theory, which is an objective and effective theory that combines the advantages of low-speed and high-speed theories. Under different conditions, this GR theory will develop into the original theory. For example, when the gravitational field in space is weakening, GR will develop towards SR, so as to develop into SR ( Special Relativity ). When the object is developing towards the direction with low representation speed in space and time, GR will develop towards the theory of universal gravitation, so as to develop into the theory of universal gravitation. This is the relevant conclusion drawn from the actual experiments of scientists. There is a certain data error in this conclusion, which is the inevitable result of the relative contradiction of theory that insists on the combination of human consciousness and interaction of time and space. Its balance contradiction is the error value naturally released by theory.
The modern observation and understanding results found that there are a large number of electromagnetic fields and particles in space - time, which has turned space-time into an environment that is not a pure vacuum. It has mesons, just as people realized that there is ether in space-time when Einstein announced that ether does not exist, but now it does exist. Because this kind of existence may subvert Einstein's relative theory as some people dream. This is unlikely, because space-time existed when Einstein developed his theory of relativity. Now it is also necessary to really study whether this space-time meson affects the optical path and whether it is the result of the influence of conventional matter, diffraction. If there are a large number of space-time mesons, and they are electromagnetic fields and particles, then some similarities between space and time are confirmed, such as distortion of space and time.

Liu Tiejun

February 11, 2019

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